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Magnesium Hydroxide Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 21 Jun, 2022

Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal of atomic number 12 and it is represented by the symbol Mg. The name Magnesium comes from the Greek word Magnesia. It was first discovered by Joseph Black in the year 1755. It makes up to 13 percent of the planet’s mass and the largest part of the planet’s mantle. Naturally, it occurs in combination with other elements and mostly has the oxidation state of +2. Free metal can now be produced artificially due to the advancement in science but it is highly reactive. The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light. It is the most abundant element by mass in the human body. 

Magnesium Hydroxide Formula

Magnesium hydroxide is an organic compound with chemical formula of Mg(OH)2 and occurs naturally as mineral brucite. Brucite is a common alternative product of periclase in marble and was first discovered in 1824 by Francois Sulpice Beudant. A fibrous type of Brucite is called nemalite and occurs in fibres but usually elongates but sometimes even takes a crystalline form. Magnesium Hydroxide is located in wood’s Chroma Mines, Pennsylvania. Yellow, blue and white Brucite is found in the Saifullah District of Pakistan. It also occurs in South Africa, Italy, Russia and many more locations. It is prepared by treating the solution of different soluble salts with alkaline water by which a precipitate of magnesium hydroxide is formed .

Structure of Magnesium Hydroxide

The molecular formula of Magnesium Hydroxide is Mg(OH)2 and is formed by the bond formation between Mg+2  ion and two ions of (OH)-1 ion. The IUPAC name of it is Magnesium di hydroxide .

 

Physical Properties of Magnesium Hydroxide

  • The molecular weight of Magnesium Hydroxide is 58.
  • It is mostly white in color but is also found in blue and yellow color.
  • It has very low Solubility in water or any polar solvent.
  • The melting point is around 330° to 350° C.
  • The pH of magnesium hydroxide is around 10.

Chemical Properties of Magnesium Hydroxide

  • It is highly flammable in normal temperature , it burns in air with a bright white light.

Mg(OH)2 ⇢ MgO + H2

  • Upon heating with Halogens  it reacts with Halogen.
  • When it reacts with HCl it forma magnesium Chloride a colorless water absorbing material.
  • Magnesium Oxide is formed by roasting magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide.

Uses of Magnesium Hydroxide 

  • It is used to make Milk of Magnesia an antacid which is made by suspending Magnesium Hydroxide. It acts as antacid by neutralizing HCl produced in the stomach.
  • It is used in the manufacturing of Laxative.
  • It is used in the food industry as an ingredient and is even considered safe to eat by the FDA.
  • It is sometimes used in the treatment of water.
  • The naturally present magnesium hydroxide is used as a fire retardant.
  • It is used as a pH control agent in the cosmetic industry.

Sample Questions 

Question 1: Write the molecular formula of Magnesium Hydroxide and explain the structure of Magnesium Hydroxide.

Answer:

The molecular formula of Magnesium Hydroxide is Mg(OH)2. It is formed by the bond formation between the Mg+2 ion and two ions of (OH)-1 ion. The IUPAC name of it is Magnesium di hydroxide .

Question 2: Explain some common uses of Magnesium Hydroxide.

Answer:

It is used in the manufacturing of Laxative .It is used in the food industry as an ingredient and is even considered safe to eat by the FDA. It is sometimes used in the treatment of water. The naturally present magnesium hydroxide is used as a fire retardant. It is used as a pH control agent in the cosmetic industry.

Question 3: In what form is magnesium hydroxide found in nature.

Answer:

Magnesium hydroxide is an organic compound with chemical formula of Mg(OH)2 and occurs naturally as mineral brucite. Brucite is a common alternative product of periclase in marble and was first discovered in 1824 by Francois Sulpice Beudant. A fibrous type of Brucite is called nemalite and occurs in fibres but usually elongates but sometimes even takes a crystalline form.

Question 4: Explain some physical properties of magnesium hydroxide .

Answer: 

The molecular weight of Magnesium Hydroxide is 58. It is mostly white in color but is also found in blue and yellow color. It has very low Solubility in water or any polar solvent. The melting point is around 330 to 350°C. The pH of magnesium hydroxide is around 10.

Question 5: What is milk of magnesia?

Answer: 

It is used to make Milk of Magnesia an antacid which is made by suspending Magnesium Hydroxide. It acts as antacid by neutralizing HCl produced in the stomach and thus acting as a antacid and reduce the acidity.

Question 6:  How does magnesium hydroxide react with air ?

Answer: 

It is highly flammable in normal temperatures, it burns in air with a bright white light and forms magnesium oxide and water. This is an example of a decomposition reaction.

Mg(OH)2 ⇢ MgO + H2

Question 7: List the places where magnesium hydroxide is found.

Answer:  

Magnesium Hydroxide is located in wood’s Chroma Mines, Pennsylvania. Yellow, blue and white Brucite is found in the Saifullah District of Pakistan. It also occurs in South Africa, Italy, Russia and many more locations.

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