# m-WAY Search Trees | Set-1 ( Searching )

The **m-way** search trees are multi-way trees which are generalised versions of binary trees where each node contains multiple elements. In an m-Way tree of order **m**, each node contains a maximum of **m – 1** elements and m children.

The goal of m-Way search tree of height h calls for O(h) no. of accesses for an insert/delete/retrieval operation. Hence, it ensures that the height **h** is close to **log_m(n + 1)**.

The number of elements in an m-Way search tree of height **h** ranges from a minimum of **h** to a maximum of .

An m-Way search tree of n elements ranges from a minimum height of **log_m(n+1)** to a maximum of **n**

An example of a 5-Way search tree is shown in the figure below. Observe how each node has at most 5 child nodes & therefore has at most 4 keys contained in it.

The structure of a node of an m-Way tree is given below:

`struct` `node {` ` ` `int` `count;` ` ` `int` `value[MAX + 1];` ` ` `struct` `node* child[MAX + 1];` `};` |

- Here,
**count**represents the number of children that a particular node has - The values of a node stored in the array
**value** - The addresses of child nodes are stored in the
**child**array - The
**MAX**macro signifies the maximum number of values that a particular node can contain

**Searching in an m-Way search tree:**

- Searching for a key in an m-Way search tree is similar to that of binary search tree
- To search for 77 in the 5-Way search tree, shown in the figure, we begin at the root & as 77> 76> 44> 18, move to the fourth sub-tree
- In the root node of the fourth sub-tree, 77< 80 & therefore we move to the first sub-tree of the node. Since 77 is available in the only node of this sub-tree, we claim 77 was successfully searched

`// Searches value in the node` `struct` `node* search(` `int` `val,` ` ` `struct` `node* root,` ` ` `int` `* pos)` `{` ` ` ` ` `// if root is Null then return` ` ` `if` `(root == NULL)` ` ` `return` `NULL;` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` ` ` `// if node is found` ` ` `if` `(searchnode(val, root, pos))` ` ` `return` `root;` ` ` ` ` `// if not then search in child nodes` ` ` `else` ` ` `return` `search(val,` ` ` `root->child[*pos],` ` ` `pos);` ` ` `}` `}` ` ` `// Searches the node` `int` `searchnode(` `int` `val,` ` ` `struct` `node* n,` ` ` `int` `* pos)` `{` ` ` `// if val is less than node->value[1]` ` ` `if` `(val < n->value[1]) {` ` ` `*pos = 0;` ` ` `return` `0;` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// if the val is greater` ` ` `else` `{` ` ` `*pos = n->count;` ` ` ` ` `// check in the child array` ` ` `// for correct position` ` ` `while` `((val < n->value[*pos])` ` ` `&& *pos > 1)` ` ` `(*pos)--;` ` ` `if` `(val == n->value[*pos])` ` ` `return` `1;` ` ` `else` ` ` `return` `0;` ` ` `}` `}` |

**search():**

- The function
**search()**receives three parameters - The first parameter is the value to be searched, second is the address of the node from where the search is to be performed and third is the address of a variable that is used to store the position of the value once found
- Initially a condition is checked whether the address of the node being searched is NULL
- If it is, then simply a NULL value is returned
- Otherwise, a function
**searchnode()**is called which actually searches the given value - If the search is successful the address of the node in which the value is found is returned
- If the search is unsuccessful then a recursive call is made to the
**search()**function for the child of the current node

**searchnode():**

- The function
**searchnode()**receives three parameters - The first parameter is the value that is to be searched
- The second parameter is the address of the node in which the search is to be performed and third is a pointer
**pos**that holds the address of a variable in which the position of the value that once found is stored - This function returns a value 0 if the search is unsuccessful and 1 if it is successful
- In this function initially it is checked whether the value that is to be searched is less than the very first value of the node
- If it is then it indicates that the value is not present in the current node. Hence, a value 0 is assigned in the variable that is pointed to by
**pos**and 0 is returned, as the search is unsuccessful

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