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Java Program to Efficiently compute sums of diagonals of a matrix

  • Last Updated : 11 Jan, 2022

Given a 2D square matrix, find the sum of elements in Principal and Secondary diagonals. For example, consider the following 4 X 4 input matrix.
 

A00 A01 A02 A03
A10 A11 A12 A13
A20 A21 A22 A23
A30 A31 A32 A33

The primary diagonal is formed by the elements A00, A11, A22, A33. 
 

  1. Condition for Principal Diagonal: The row-column condition is row = column. 
    The secondary diagonal is formed by the elements A03, A12, A21, A30.
  2. Condition for Secondary Diagonal: The row-column condition is row = numberOfRows – column -1.

Examples : 
 

Input : 
4
1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1
7 8 9 6
6 5 4 3
Output :
Principal Diagonal: 16
Secondary Diagonal: 20

Input :
3
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
Output :
Principal Diagonal: 3
Secondary Diagonal: 3

 

 

Method 1 (O(n ^ 2) :

In this method, we use two loops i.e. a loop for columns and a loop for rows and in the inner loop we check for the condition stated above:
 

Java




// A simple java program to find
// sum of diagonals
import java.io.*;
  
public class GFG {
  
    static void printDiagonalSums(int [][]mat,
                                         int n)
    {
        int principal = 0, secondary = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
      
                // Condition for principal
                // diagonal
                if (i == j)
                    principal += mat[i][j];
      
                // Condition for secondary
                // diagonal
                if ((i + j) == (n - 1))
                    secondary += mat[i][j];
            }
        }
      
        System.out.println("Principal Diagonal:"
                                    + principal);
                                      
        System.out.println("Secondary Diagonal:"
                                    + secondary);
    }
  
    // Driver code
    static public void main (String[] args)
    {
          
        int [][]a = { { 1, 2, 3, 4 },
                      { 5, 6, 7, 8 }, 
                      { 1, 2, 3, 4 },
                      { 5, 6, 7, 8 } };
                      
        printDiagonalSums(a, 4);
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by vt_m.

Output:  

Principal Diagonal:18
Secondary Diagonal:18

This code takes O(n^2) time and O(1) auxiliary space
 

Method 2 (O(n) :

In this method we use one loop i.e. a loop for calculating sum of both the principal and secondary diagonals: 
 

Java




// An efficient java program to find
// sum of diagonals
import java.io.*;
  
public class GFG {
  
    static void printDiagonalSums(int [][]mat,
                                        int n)
    {
        int principal = 0, secondary = 0
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            principal += mat[i][i];
            secondary += mat[i][n - i - 1]; 
        }
      
        System.out.println("Principal Diagonal:"
                                   + principal);
                                     
        System.out.println("Secondary Diagonal:"
                                   + secondary);
    }
      
    // Driver code
    static public void main (String[] args)
    {
        int [][]a = { { 1, 2, 3, 4 },
                      { 5, 6, 7, 8 }, 
                      { 1, 2, 3, 4 },
                      { 5, 6, 7, 8 } };
      
        printDiagonalSums(a, 4);
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by vt_m.

Output :  

Principal Diagonal:18
Secondary Diagonal:18

This code takes O(n) time and O(1) auxiliary space
Please refer complete article on Efficiently compute sums of diagonals of a matrix for more details!


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