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Java – Final vs Static Access Modifier

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  • Last Updated : 25 Feb, 2022

Final keyword is used in different contexts. First of all, final is a non-access modifier applicable only to a variable, a method, or a class. Following are different contexts where final is used. While the static keyword in Java is mainly used for memory management. The static keyword in Java is used to share the same variable or method of a given class. The users can apply static keywords with variables, methods, blocks, and nested classes.

Final Access Modifier

Final access modifier is a modifier applicable to classes, methods, and variables. If we declare a parent class method as final then we can’t override that method in the child class because its implementation is final and if a class is declared as final we can’t extend the functionality of that class i.e we can’t create a child class for that class i.e inheritance is not possible for final classes. Every method present inside the final class is always final y default but every variable present inside the final class need not be final. The main advantage of the final keyword is we can achieve security and we can provide a unique implementation. But the main disadvantage of the final keyword is we are missing key benefits of OOPs like Inheritance(Because of the final class), Polymorphism(Because of the final method)  hence if there are no specific requirements then it is not recommended to use the final keyword.

Example 1:

Java




// Java Program to illustrate Final keyword
// Where No final keyword Is Used
 
// Importing required classes
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// Class 1
// Super-class
class P {
 
    // Method 1
    // To declare first name
    public void firstName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Mayank");
    }
 
    // Method 2
    // To declare last name
    public void surName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Trivedi");
    }
}
 
// Class 2
// Sub-class
// Extending above class
class C extends P {
 
    // Method 1
    // Trying to override the last name
    public void surName()
    {
        // Display surname
        System.out.println("Sharma");
    }
 
    // Method 2
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Display message
        System.out.println("GFG");
    }
}

 
 

Output

GFG

 

Example 2:

 

Java




// Java Program to illustrate Final keyword
// When final keyword Is Used
 
// Importing required classes
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// Class 1
// Super-class
class P {
 
    // Method 1
    // To declare first name
    public void firstName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Mayank");
    }
 
    // Method 2
    // To declare last name
    public final void surName()
    {
 
        // Passing name and print it
        System.out.println("Trivedi");
    }
}
 
// Class 2
// Sub-class
// Extending above class
class C extends P {
 
    // Method 1
    // Trying to override the last name
    public void surName()
    {
        // Display surname
        System.out.println("Sharma");
    }
 
    // Method 2
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Display message
        System.out.println("GFG");
    }
}

 
 

Output:

 

Static Access Modifier

 

Static access modifier is an access modifier that is applicable for methods and variables but not for classes. We can declare top-level class with a static modifier but we can declare the inner class as static (such types of inner classes are known as static nested classes). In the case of instance variable for every object, a separate copy will be created but in the case of static variable, a single copy will be created at class level and shared by every object of that class.

 

Example

 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Static Access Modifier
 
// Importing required classes
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
// Main class
class GFG {
 
    // Creating a static variable and
    // initializing a custom value
    static int x = 10;
 
    // Creating a instance variable and
    // initializing a custom value
    int y = 20;
 
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Creating an object of class inside main() method
        GFG t1 = new GFG();
 
        // Accessing and re-initializing the
        // static and instance variable
        // using t1 reference
        t1.x = 88;
        t1.y = 99;
 
        // Creating an object of class inside main() method
        // again
        GFG t2 = new GFG();
 
        // Accessing the static and instance variable using
        // t2 reference as we know that for each object
        // there is a separate copy of instance variable
        // created. While a same copy of static variable will
        // be shared between the objects
 
        // Displaying the value of static and instance
        // variable using t2 object reference
        System.out.println(
            "Value of Static variable x = " + t2.x + "\n"
            + "Value of Instance variable y = " + t2.y);
    }
}

Output

Value of Static variable x = 88
Value of Instance variable y = 20

After having a good understanding and implementation of both of the above specifiers and these important special keywords let us tabulate differences between them to grasp a good understanding over these keywords.

 

                     Final Access Modifier                               Static Access Modifier
This modifier is applicable to both outer and inner classes, variables, methods, and blocks.This modifier is only applicable to inner classes, methods, and variables. 
It is not necessary to initialize the final variable at the time of its declaration.It is necessary to initialize the static variable at the time of its declaration.
Final variable cannot be reinitialized.Static variables can be reinitialized.
Final method can’t be inherited.Static methods can only access the static members of the class and can only be called by other static methods.
Final class can’t be inherited by any class.The static class object can’t be created and it only contains static members only.
Final keyword doesn’t support any block for initialization of final variables.Static block is used to initialize the static variables.

 


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