# Iterator Functions in Python | Set 2 (islice(), starmap(), tee()..)

• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 04 Feb, 2020

Iterator Functions in Python | Set 1

1. islice(iterable, start, stop, step) :- This iterator selectively prints the values mentioned in its iterable container passed as argument. This iterator takes 4 arguments, iterable container, starting pos., ending position and step.

2. starmap(func., tuple list) :- This iterator takes a function and tuple list as argument and returns the value according to the function from each tuple of list.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# islice() and starmap()`` ` `# importing "itertools" for iterator operations``import` `itertools`` ` `# initializing list ``li ``=` `[``2``, ``4``, ``5``, ``7``, ``8``, ``10``, ``20``]`` ` `# initializing tuple list``li1 ``=` `[ (``1``, ``10``, ``5``), (``8``, ``4``, ``1``), (``5``, ``4``, ``9``), (``11``, ``10` `, ``1``) ]`` ` ` ` `# using islice() to slice the list acc. to need``# starts printing from 2nd index till 6th skipping 2``print` `(``"The sliced list values are : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(``list``(itertools.islice(li,``1``, ``6``, ``2``)))`` ` `# using starmap() for selection value acc. to function``# selects min of all tuple values``print` `(``"The values acc. to function are : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(``list``(itertools.starmap(``min``,li1)))`

Output:

```The sliced list values are : [4, 7, 10]
The values acc. to function are : [1, 1, 4, 1]
```

3. takewhile(func, iterable) :- This iterator is opposite of dropwhile(), it prints the values till the function returns false for 1st time.

4. tee(iterator, count) :- This iterator splits the container into a number of iterators mentioned in the argument.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# takewhile() and tee()`` ` `# importing "itertools" for iterator operations``import` `itertools`` ` `# initializing list ``li ``=` `[``2``, ``4``, ``6``, ``7``, ``8``, ``10``, ``20``]`` ` `# storing list in iterator``iti ``=` `iter``(li)`` ` `# using takewhile() to print values till condition is false.``print` `(``"The list values till 1st false value are : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(``list``(itertools.takewhile(``lambda` `x : x``%``2``=``=``0``,li )))`` ` `# using tee() to make a list of iterators``# makes list of 3 iterators having same values.``it ``=` `itertools.tee(iti, ``3``)`` ` `# printing the values of iterators``print` `(``"The iterators are : "``)``for` `i ``in` `range` `(``0``,``3``):``    ``print` `(``list``(it[i]))`

Output:

```The list values till 1st false value are : [2, 4, 6]
The iterators are :
[2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 20]
[2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 20]
[2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 20]
```

5. zip_longest( iterable1, iterable2, fillval.) :- This iterator prints the values of iterables alternatively in sequence. If one of the iterables is printed fully, remaining values are filled by the values assigned to fillvalue.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# zip_longest()`` ` `# importing "itertools" for iterator operations``import` `itertools`` ` `# using zip_longest() to combine two iterables.``print` `(``"The combined values of iterables is  : "``)``print` `(``*``(itertools.zip_longest(``'GesoGes'``,``'ekfrek'``,fillvalue``=``'_'` `)))`

Output:

```The combined values of iterables is  :
('G', 'e') ('e', 'k') ('s', 'f') ('o', 'r') ('G', 'e') ('e', 'k') ('s', '_')
```

Combinatoric Iterators

1. product(iter1, iter2) :- This iterator prints the cartesian product of the two iterable containers passed as arguments.

2. permutations(iter, group_size) :- This iterator prints all possible permutation of all elements of iterable. The size of each permuted group is decided by group_size argument.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# product() and permutations()`` ` `# importing "itertools" for iterator operations``import` `itertools`` ` `# using product() to print the cartesian product``print` `(``"The cartesian product of the containers is : "``)``print` `(``list``(itertools.product(``'AB'``,``'12'``)))`` ` `# using permutations to compute all possible permutations``print` `(``"All the permutations of the given container is : "``)``print` `(``list``(itertools.permutations(``'GfG'``,``2``)))`

Output:

```The cartesian product of the containers is :
[('A', '1'), ('A', '2'), ('B', '1'), ('B', '2')]
All the permutations of the given container is :
[('G', 'f'), ('G', 'G'), ('f', 'G'), ('f', 'G'), ('G', 'G'), ('G', 'f')]
```

3. combinations(iterable, group_size) :- This iterator prints all the possible combinations(without replacement) of the container passed in arguments in the specified group size in sorted order.

4. combinations_with_replacement(iterable, group_size) :- This iterator prints all the possible combinations(with replacement) of the container passed in arguments in the specified group size in sorted order.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# combination() and combination_with_replacement()`` ` `# importing "itertools" for iterator operations``import` `itertools`` ` `# using combinations() to print every combination``# (without replacement)``print` `(``"All the combination of container in sorted order(without replacement) is : "``)``print` `(``list``(itertools.combinations(``'1234'``,``2``)))`` ` `# using combinations_with_replacement() to print every combination``# with replacement``print` `(``"All the combination of container in sorted order(with replacement) is : "``)``print` `(``list``(itertools.combinations_with_replacement(``'GfG'``,``2``)))`

Output:

```All the combination of container in sorted order(without replacement) is :
[('1', '2'), ('1', '3'), ('1', '4'), ('2', '3'), ('2', '4'), ('3', '4')]
All the combination of container in sorted order(with replacement) is :
[('G', 'G'), ('G', 'f'), ('G', 'G'), ('f', 'f'), ('f', 'G'), ('G', 'G')]
```

Infinite Iterators

1. count(start, step) :- This iterator starts printing from the “start” number and prints infinitely. If steps are mentioned, the numbers are skipped else step is 1 by default.

Example :

```iterator.count(5,2) prints -- 5,7,9,11...infinitely
```

2. cycle(iterable) :- This iterator prints all values in order from the passed container. It restarts printing from beginning again when all elements are printed in a cyclic manner.

Example :

```iterator.cycle([1,2,3,4]) prints -- 1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4,1...infinitely
```

3. repeat(val, num) :- This iterator repeatedly prints the passed value infinite number of times. If num. is mentioned, them till that number.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of ``# repeat()`` ` `# importing "itertools" for iterator operations``import` `itertools`` ` `# using repeat() to repeatedly print number``print` `(``"Printing the numbers repeatedly : "``)``print` `(``list``(itertools.repeat(``25``,``4``)))`

Output:

```Printing the numbers repeatedly :
[25, 25, 25, 25]
```

This article is contributed by Manjeet Singh. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.