Index Mapping (or Trivial Hashing) with negatives allowed

Given a limited range array contains both positive and non-positive numbers, i.e., elements are in the range from -MAX to +MAX. Our task is to search if some number is present in the array or not in O(1) time.

Since range is limited, we can use index mapping (or trivial hashing). We use values as the index in a big array. Therefore we can search and insert elements in O(1) time. How to handle negative numbers?
The idea is to use a 2D array of size hash[MAX+1]

Algorithm:

Assign all the values of the hash matrix as 0.
Traverse the given array:
If the element ele is non negative assign
hash[ele] as 1.
Else take the absolute value of ele and
assign hash[ele] as 1.

To search any element x in the array.

• If X is non-negative check if hash[X] is 1 or not. If hash[X] is one then the number is present else not present.
• If X is negative take absolute value of X and then check if hash[X] is 1 or not. If hash[X] is one then the number is present

Below is the implementation of the above idea.

C++

 // CPP program to implement direct index mapping // with negative values allowed. #include using namespace std; #define MAX 1000    // Since array is global, it is initialized as 0. bool has[MAX + 1];    // searching if X is Present in the given array  // or not. bool search(int X) {     if (X >= 0) {         if (has[X] == 1)             return true;         else             return false;     }        // if X is negative take the absolute      // value of X.     X = abs(X);     if (has[X] == 1)         return true;        return false; }    void insert(int a[], int n) {     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {         if (a[i] >= 0)              has[a[i]] = 1;        else             has[abs(a[i])] = 1;     } }    // Driver code int main() {     int a[] = { -1, 9, -5, -8, -5, -2 };     int n = sizeof(a)/sizeof(a);     insert(a, n);     int X = -5;     if (search(X) == true)        cout << "Present";      else        cout << "Not Present";     return 0; }

Java

 // Java program to implement direct index  // mapping with negative values allowed.  class GFG {    final static int MAX = 1000;    // Since array is global, it  // is initialized as 0.  static boolean[][] has = new boolean[MAX + 1];    // searching if X is Present in  // the given array or not.  static boolean search(int X)  {     if (X >= 0)      {         if (has[X] == true)          {             return true;         }          else          {             return false;         }     }        // if X is negative take the      // absolute value of X.      X = Math.abs(X);     if (has[X] == true)      {         return true;     }        return false; }    static void insert(int a[], int n)  {     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)      {         if (a[i] >= 0)          {             has[a[i]] = true;         }          else          {             has[Math.abs(a[i])] = true;         }     } }    // Driver code  public static void main(String args[])  {     int a[] = {-1, 9, -5, -8, -5, -2};     int n = a.length;     insert(a, n);     int X = -5;     if (search(X) == true)     {         System.out.println("Present");     }      else      {         System.out.println("Not Present");     } } }    // This code is contributed // by 29AjayKumar

Python3

 # Python3 program to implement direct index  # mapping with negative values allowed.    # Searching if X is Present in the  # given array or not. def search(X):        if X >= 0:         if has[X] == 1:             return True         else:             return False        # if X is negative take the absolute     # value of X.     X = abs(X)     if has[X] == 1:         return True        return False    def insert(a, n):        for i in range(0, n):         if a[i] >= 0:             has[a[i]] = 1         else:             has[abs(a[i])] = 1    # Driver code if __name__ == "__main__":        a = [-1, 9, -5, -8, -5, -2]     n = len(a)        MAX = 1000            # Since array is global, it is     # initialized as 0.     has = [[0 for i in range(2)]                for j in range(MAX + 1)]     insert(a, n)        X = -5     if search(X) == True:         print("Present")     else:         print("Not Present")    # This code is contributed by Rituraj Jain

C#

 // C# program to implement direct index  // mapping with negative values allowed.  using System;    class GFG {    static int MAX = 1000;    // Since array is global, it  // is initialized as 0.  static bool[,] has = new bool[MAX + 1, 2];    // searching if X is Present in  // the given array or not.  static bool search(int X)  {     if (X >= 0)      {         if (has[X, 0] == true)          {             return true;         }          else         {             return false;         }     }        // if X is negative take the      // absolute value of X.      X = Math.Abs(X);     if (has[X, 1] == true)      {         return true;     }        return false; }    static void insert(int[] a, int n)  {     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)      {         if (a[i] >= 0)          {             has[a[i], 0] = true;         }          else         {             has[Math.Abs(a[i]), 1] = true;         }     } }    // Driver code  public static void Main()  {     int[] a = {-1, 9, -5, -8, -5, -2};     int n = a.Length;     insert(a, n);     int X = -5;     if (search(X) == true)     {         Console.WriteLine("Present");     }      else     {         Console.WriteLine("Not Present");     } } }    // This code is contributed // by Akanksha Rai

Output:

Present

This article is contributed by ShivamKD. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up

Article Tags :
Practice Tags :

26

Please write to us at contribute@geeksforgeeks.org to report any issue with the above content.