Get K-th letter of the decoded string formed by repeating substrings

Given a string S containing letter and digit and an integer K where, 2\leq S.length() \leq 100 and 1\leq K \leq 10^{9}. The task is to return the K-th letter of the new string S’.

The new string S’ is formed from old string S by following steps:
1. If the character read is a letter, that letter is added at end of S’.
2. If the character read is a digit, then entire string S’ repeatedly written d-1 more times in total.

Note: The new string is guaranteed to have less than 2^63 letters.



Examples:

Input: S = “geeks2for2”, K = 15
Output: “e”
Explanation: The new string S’ = “geeksgeeksforgeeksgeeksfor”. The 15th letter is “e”.

Input: S = “a2345”, K = 100
Output: “a”
Explanation: The new string S’=”a” repeated 120 times. The 100th letter is “a”.

Let us take a new string like S’ = “geeksgeeksgeeksgeeksgeeks” and an index K = 22, then the answer at K = 22 is the same if K = 2.
In general, when a string is equal to some word with size length repeated some number of times (such as geeks with size = 5 repeated 5 times), then the answer will be same for the index K as it is for the index K % size.

Using this insight and working backwards, we keep track of the size of the new string S’. Whenever the string S’ would equal some word repeated d times, we can reduce K to K % (lengthof(word)).

We first find the length of the new string S’. After, this we’ll work backwards, keeping track of size: the length of the new string after parsing symbols S[0], S[1], …, S[i].

If we see a digit S[i], it means the size of the new string after parsing S[0], S[1], …, S[i-1] will be (size / toInteger(S[i])). Otherwise, it will be size – 1.

Below is the implementation of above approach:

C++

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// CPP implementation of above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to return the K-th letter from new String.
string K_thletter(string S, int K)
{
  
    int N = S.size();
    long size = 0;
  
    // finding size = length of new string S'
    for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) {
        if (isdigit(S[i]))
            size = size * (S[i] - '0');
        else
            size += 1;
    }
  
    // get the K-th letter
    for (int i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
        K %= size;
  
        if (K == 0 && isalpha(S[i]))
            return (string) "" + S[i];
  
        if (isdigit(S[i]))
            size = size / (S[i] - '0');
        else
            size -= 1;
    }
}
  
// Driver program
int main()
{
    string S = "geeks2for2";
    int K = 15;
  
    cout << K_thletter(S, K);
  
    return 0;
}
  
// This code is written by Sanjit_Prasad

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Java

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// Java implementation of above approach 
class GFG 
{
    // Function to return the K-th letter from new String. 
    static String K_thletter(String S, int K)
    {
        int N = S.length();
        long size = 0;
  
        // finding size = length of new string S' 
        for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
        {
            if (Character.isDigit(S.charAt(i)))
            {
                size = size * (S.charAt(i) - '0');
            
            else
            {
                size += 1;
            }
        }
  
        // get the K-th letter 
        for (int i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i) 
        {
            K %= size;
            if (K == 0 && Character.isAlphabetic(S.charAt(i)))
            {
                return (String) "" + S.charAt(i);
            }
  
            if (Character.isDigit(S.charAt(i))) 
            {
                size = size / (S.charAt(i) - '0');
            
            else 
            {
                size -= 1;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }
  
    // Driver program 
    public static void main(String[] args) 
    {
        String S = "geeks2for2";
        int K = 15;
        System.out.println(K_thletter(S, K));
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by Rajput-Ji

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Python3

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# Python3 implementation of above approach 
  
# Function to return the K-th letter 
# from new String. 
def K_thletter(S, K): 
  
    N = len(S) 
    size = 0
  
    # finding size = length of new string S' 
    for i in range(0, N): 
        if S[i].isdigit(): 
            size = size * int(S[i]) 
        else:
            size += 1
  
    # get the K-th letter 
    for i in range(N - 1, -1, -1): 
        K %= size 
  
        if K == 0 and S[i].isalpha():
            return S[i] 
  
        if S[i].isdigit(): 
            size = size // int(S[i]) 
        else:
            size -= 1
  
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__"
  
    S = "geeks2for2"
    K = 15
  
    print(K_thletter(S, K)) 
  
# This code is contributed 
# by Rituraj Jain

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C#

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// C# implementation of the above approach
using System;     
      
class GFG 
{
    // Function to return the K-th letter from new String. 
    static String K_thletter(String S, int K)
    {
        int N = S.Length;
        long size = 0;
  
        // finding size = length of new string S' 
        for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
        {
            if (char.IsDigit(S[i]))
            {
                size = size * (S[i] - '0');
            
            else
            {
                size += 1;
            }
        }
  
        // get the K-th letter 
        for (int i = N - 1; i >= 0; --i) 
        {
            K %= (int)size;
            if (K == 0 && char.IsLetter(S[i]))
            {
                return (String) "" + S[i];
            }
  
            if (char.IsDigit(S[i])) 
            {
                size = size / (S[i] - '0');
            
            else
            {
                size -= 1;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }
  
    // Driver code 
    public static void Main(String[] args) 
    {
        String S = "geeks2for2";
        int K = 15;
        Console.WriteLine(K_thletter(S, K));
    }
}
  
// This code has been contributed by 29AjayKumar

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Output:

e

Time Complexity: O(N), where N is the length of S.



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