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Generate Factors with specified Levels in R Programming – gl() Function

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gl() function in R Language is used to generate factors by specifying the pattern of their levels.
Syntax: gl(x, k, length, labels, ordered) Parameters: x: Number of levels k: Number of replications length: Length of result labels: Labels for the vector(optional) ordered: Boolean value to order the levels
Example 1:
# R Program to generate factors
  
# Creating a factor
# using gl() function
x1 <- gl(2, 5)
  
# gl() function with
# length specified
x2 <- gl(3, 4, 12)
  
# Printing the factors
print(x1)
print(x2)

                    
Output:
 [1] 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Levels: 1 2
 [1] 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Levels: 1 2 3
Example 2:
# R Program to generate factors
  
# gl() function with
# length and labels specified
x1 <- gl(3, 4, 12, label = letters[1:12])
  
# gl() function with
# length, label and order specified
x2 <- gl(3, 4, 12, label = letters[1:12], ordered = T)
  
# Printing the factors
print(x1)
print(x2)

                    
Output:
 [1] a a a a b b b b c c c c
Levels: a b c d e f g h i j k l
 [1] a a a a b b b b c c c c
Levels: a < b < c < d < e < f < g < h < i < j < k < l


Last Updated : 16 Jun, 2020
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