Given an array **arr[]** of size **N**, the task is to construct a new array **B[]** using elements of array **A** such that:

- If the element is not present in
**B[]**, then append it to the end. - If the element is present in
**B[]**, then first increment its leftmost occurrence by 1 and then append this element to the end of the array.

**Examples:**

Input:arr[] = {1, 2, 1, 2}Output:{ 3, 2, 1, 2 }Explanation:

arr[0] = 1, B = {}. 1 is not present in B. So append it at the end. Therefore, B = {1}

arr[1] = 2, B = {1}. 2 is not present in B. So append it at the end. Therefore, B[] = {1, 2}

arr[2] = 1, B = {1, 2}. 1 is already present in B[]. So increment B[0] by 1 and append 1 at the end. Therefore B[] = {2, 2, 1}

arr[3] = 2, B = {2, 2, 1}. 2 is already present in B[]. So increment B[0] by 1 and append 2 at the end. Therefore B[] = {3, 2, 1, 2}

Input:arr[] = {2, 5, 4, 2, 8, 4, 2}Output:{3, 5, 5, 3, 8, 4, 2}

**Naive Approach:** For every element in the array A, check if it is present in array B or not. If the element exists, then increment the leftmost occurrence by one. Finally, add the element at the end of the array B[].**Time Complexity:** O(N^{2})

**Efficient Approach:** The idea is to use a map to store all the indices of every element. The array B[] is generated as:

- For every element in the array
**arr[]**, it is checked if the element is already present in the array**B[]**or not. - If the element is not present in the array
**B[]**, then the element is added to the array**B[]**and its index is added to the**map**. Since this is the first occurrence of the element, this index becomes the**left-most index**of the element. - If the element is already present in the array
**B[]**, then the**left-most**index is returned and the element at that index is**incremented**by one. When the value is incremented, the left-most index of the old value is updated along with the index of the new value.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

`// C++ program to generate an array` `// from a given array under the` `// given conditions` ` ` `#include <bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` ` ` `// Function to generate an array` `// from a given array under the` `// given conditions` `void` `newArray(` `int` `A[], ` `int` `n)` `{` ` ` `// To maintain indexes of the` ` ` `// elements in sorted order` ` ` `unordered_map<` `int` `, set<` `int` `> > idx;` ` ` ` ` `// Initialize new array B` ` ` `std::vector<` `int` `> B;` ` ` ` ` `// For every element in the given` ` ` `// array arr[]` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; ++i) {` ` ` ` ` `// Check if the element is present` ` ` `// in the array B[]` ` ` `if` `(idx.find(A[i]) != idx.end()) {` ` ` ` ` `// Get the leftmost position` ` ` `// in the array B` ` ` `int` `pos = *idx[A[i]].begin();` ` ` ` ` `// Remove the leftmost position` ` ` `idx[A[i]].erase(idx[A[i]].begin());` ` ` ` ` `// Increment the value at` ` ` `// the leftmost position` ` ` `B[pos]++;` ` ` ` ` `// Insert new value position` ` ` `// in the map` ` ` `idx[B[pos]].insert(pos);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Append arr[i] at the end` ` ` `// of the array B` ` ` `B.push_back(A[i]);` ` ` ` ` `// Insert its position in hash-map` ` ` `idx[A[i]].insert(i);` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Print the generated array` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; ++i)` ` ` `cout << B[i] << ` `" "` `;` `}` ` ` `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `int` `arr[] = { 1, 2, 1, 2 };` ` ` `int` `n = ` `sizeof` `(arr) / ` `sizeof` `(` `int` `);` ` ` ` ` `newArray(arr, n);` ` ` ` ` `return` `0;` `}` |

**Output:**

3 2 1 2

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