Find missing elements from an Array

Given a list of integers from the range [1, N] with some of the elements missing. The task is to find the missing elements. Note that there can be duplicates in the list.

Examples:

Input: arr[] = {1, 3, 3, 3, 5}
Output: 2 4

Input: arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 7, 7} 
Output: 5 6

Approach: In the given range [1, N] there should be an element corresponding to each index. If an element is missing then its index will never be visited.



Traverse the array:
For each element:
    if array[element] > 0:
          Mark the element as visited
Again, traverse the array:
     if element isNot Visited:
           add it as missing element

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++

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// C++ implementation of the approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to find the missing elements
vector<int> missing_elements(vector<int> vec)
{
  
    // Vector to store the list
    // of missing elements
    vector<int> mis;
  
    // For every given element
    for (int i = 0; i < vec.size(); i++) {
  
        // Find its index
        int temp = abs(vec[i]) - 1;
  
        // Update the element at the found index
        vec[temp] = vec[temp] > 0 ? -vec[temp] : vec[temp];
    }
    for (int i = 0; i < vec.size(); i++)
  
        // Current element was not present
        // in the original vector
        if (vec[i] > 0)
            mis.push_back(i + 1);
  
    return mis;
}
  
// Driver code
int main()
{
    vector<int> vec = { 3, 3, 3, 5, 1 };
  
    // Vector to store the returned
    // list of missing elements
    vector<int> miss_ele = missing_elements(vec);
  
    // Print the list of elements
    for (int i = 0; i < miss_ele.size(); i++)
        cout << miss_ele[i] << " ";
  
    return 0;
}

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Java

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// Java implementation of the above approach 
import java.util.*;
  
class GFG
{
      
    // Function to find the missing elements 
    static Vector missing_elements(Vector vec) 
    
      
        // Vector to store the list 
        // of missing elements 
        Vector mis = new Vector();
      
        // For every given element 
        for (int i = 0; i < vec.size(); i++) 
        
      
            // Find its index 
            int temp = Math.abs((int)vec.get(i)) - 1
      
            // Update the element at the found index 
            if ((int)vec.get(temp) > 0)
                vec.set(temp,-(int)vec.get(temp));
            else
                vec.set(temp,vec.get(temp));
        
        for (int i = 0; i < vec.size(); i++) 
        {
            // Current element was not present 
            // in the original vector 
            if ((int)vec.get(i) > 0
                mis.add(i + 1); 
        }
        return mis; 
    
      
    // Driver code 
    public static void main(String args[]) 
    
        Vector vec = new Vector(); 
        vec.add(3);
        vec.add(3);
        vec.add(3);
        vec.add(5);
        vec.add(1);
          
        // Vector to store the returned 
        // list of missing elements 
        Vector miss_ele = missing_elements(vec); 
      
        // Print the list of elements 
        for (int i = 0; i < miss_ele.size(); i++) 
            System.out.print(miss_ele.get(i) + " "); 
    
}
  
// This code is contributed by AnkitRai01

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Python3

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# Python3 implementation of the approach
  
# Function to find the missing elements
def missing_elements(vec):
  
    # Vector to store the list
    # of missing elements
    mis = []
  
    # For every given element
    for i in range(len(vec)):
  
        # Find its index
        temp = abs(vec[i]) - 1
  
        # Update the element at the found index
        if vec[temp] > 0:
            vec[temp] = -vec[temp]
  
    for i in range(len(vec)):
  
        # Current element was not present
        # in the original vector
        if (vec[i] > 0):
            mis.append(i + 1)
  
    return mis
  
# Driver code
vec = [3, 3, 3, 5, 1]
  
# Vector to store the returned
# list of missing elements
miss_ele = missing_elements(vec)
  
# Print the list of elements
for i in range(len(miss_ele)):
    print(miss_ele[i], end = " ")
  
# This code is contributed by Mohit Kumar

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C#

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// C# implementation of the approach
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;             
  
class GFG
{
      
    // Function to find the missing elements 
    static List<int> missing_elements(List<int> vec) 
    
      
        // List<int> to store the list 
        // of missing elements 
        List<int> mis = new List<int>();
      
        // For every given element 
        for (int i = 0; i < vec.Count; i++) 
        
      
            // Find its index 
            int temp = Math.Abs((int)vec[i]) - 1; 
      
            // Update the element at the found index 
            if ((int)vec[temp] > 0)
                vec[temp] = -(int)vec[temp];
            else
                vec[temp] = vec[temp];
        
        for (int i = 0; i < vec.Count; i++) 
        {
            // Current element was not present 
            // in the original vector 
            if ((int)vec[i] > 0) 
                mis.Add(i + 1); 
        }
        return mis; 
    
      
    // Driver code 
    public static void Main(String []args) 
    
        List<int> vec = new List<int>(); 
        vec.Add(3);
        vec.Add(3);
        vec.Add(3);
        vec.Add(5);
        vec.Add(1);
          
        // List to store the returned 
        // list of missing elements 
        List<int> miss_ele = missing_elements(vec); 
      
        // Print the list of elements 
        for (int i = 0; i < miss_ele.Count; i++) 
            Console.Write(miss_ele[i] + " "); 
    
}
  
// This code is contributed by 29AjayKumar

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Output:

2 4


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