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Fill missing entries of a magic square
  • Last Updated : 27 Dec, 2018

Given a 3X3 matrix mat with it’s left diagonal elements missing (set to 0), considering the sum of every row, column and diagonal of the original matrix was equal, the task is to find the missing diagonal elements and print the original matrix.

Examples:

Input: mat[][] = {{0, 7, 6}, {9, 0, 1}, {4, 3, 0}}
Output:
2 7 6
9 5 1
4 3 8
Row sum = Column sum = Diagonal sum = 15

Input: mat[][] = {{0, 1, 1}, {1, 0, 1}, {1, 1, 0}}
Output:
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

Approach: Let Sum denote the total sum excluding the diagonal elements,



Sum = total sum of the given matrix – diagonalSum
Sum = (3 * rowSum) – diagonalSum
Sum = (2 * rowSum) [Since, columnSum = rowSum = diagonalSum]
rowSum = Sum / 2

Hence, we can insert an element in every row such that the sum of the row is rowSum

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++




// C++ program to fill blanks with numbers
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
// Function to print the original matrix
int printFilledDiagonal(int sq[][3])
{
    // Calculate the sum of all the elements
    // of the matrix
    int sum = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            sum += sq[i][j];
  
    // Required sum of each row (from the approach)
    sum /= 2;
  
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  
        // Row sum excluding the diagonal element
        int rowSum = 0;
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            rowSum += sq[i][j];
  
        // Element that must be inserted at
        // diagonal element of the current row
        sq[i][i] = sum - rowSum;
    }
  
    // Print the updated matrix
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            cout << sq[i][j] << " ";
        cout << endl;
    }
}
  
// Driver Program to test above function
int main()
{
    int sq[3][3] = {
        { 0, 7, 6 },
        { 9, 0, 1 },
        { 4, 3, 0 }
    };
  
    printFilledDiagonal(sq);
    return 0;
}


Java




// Java program to fill blanks with numbers
  
import java.io.*;
  
class GFG {
     
  
  
// Function to print the original matrix
static int printFilledDiagonal(int sq[][])
{
    // Calculate the sum of all the elements
    // of the matrix
    int sum = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            sum += sq[i][j];
  
    // Required sum of each row (from the approach)
    sum /= 2;
  
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  
        // Row sum excluding the diagonal element
        int rowSum = 0;
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            rowSum += sq[i][j];
  
        // Element that must be inserted at
        // diagonal element of the current row
        sq[i][i] = sum - rowSum;
    }
  
    // Print the updated matrix
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            System.out.print( sq[i][j] + " ");
        System.out.println();
    }
    return 0;
}
  
// Driver Program to test above function
  
    public static void main (String[] args) {
        int sq[][] = {
        { 0, 7, 6 },
        { 9, 0, 1 },
        { 4, 3, 0 }
    };
  
    printFilledDiagonal(sq);
    }
      
}
// This code is contributed by anuj_67..


Python3




# Python3 program to fill blanks 
# with numbers 
  
# Function to print the original matrix 
def printFilledDiagonal(sq): 
  
    # Calculate the sum of all the
    # elements of the matrix 
    Sum = 0
    for i in range(0, 3): 
        for j in range(0, 3): 
            Sum += sq[i][j] 
  
    # Required sum of each 
    # row (from the approach) 
    Sum = Sum//2
  
    for i in range(0, 3): 
  
        # Row sum excluding the 
        # diagonal element 
        rowSum = 0
        for j in range(0, 3): 
            rowSum += sq[i][j] 
  
        # Element that must be inserted 
        # at diagonal element of the
        # current row 
        sq[i][i] = Sum - rowSum 
      
    # Print the updated matrix 
    for i in range(0, 3): 
        for j in range(0, 3): 
            print(sq[i][j], end = " "
        print()
  
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__"
  
    sq = [[0, 7, 6], 
          [9, 0, 1], 
          [4, 3, 0]] 
  
    printFilledDiagonal(sq) 
      
# This code is contributed
# by Rituraj Jain


C#




// C# program to fill blanks with numbers
  
using System;
  
class GFG {
      
  
  
// Function to print the original matrix
static int printFilledDiagonal(int [,]sq)
{
    // Calculate the sum of all the elements
    // of the matrix
    int sum = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            sum += sq[i,j];
  
    // Required sum of each row (from the approach)
    sum /= 2;
  
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
  
        // Row sum excluding the diagonal element
        int rowSum = 0;
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            rowSum += sq[i,j];
  
        // Element that must be inserted at
        // diagonal element of the current row
        sq[i,i] = sum - rowSum;
    }
  
    // Print the updated matrix
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
            Console.Write( sq[i,j] + " ");
            Console.WriteLine();
    }
    return 0;
}
  
// Driver Program to test above function
  
    public static void Main () {
        int [,]sq = {
        { 0, 7, 6 },
        { 9, 0, 1 },
        { 4, 3, 0 }
    };
  
    printFilledDiagonal(sq);
    }
      
}
// This code is contributed by inder_verma


PHP




<?php
// PHP program to fill blanks with numbers
  
// Function to print the original matrix
function printFilledDiagonal($sq)
{
    // Calculate the sum of all the 
    // elements of the matrix
    $sum = 0;
    for ($i = 0; $i < 3; $i++)
        for ($j = 0; $j < 3; $j++)
            $sum += $sq[$i][$j];
  
    // Required sum of each row
    // (from the approach)
    $sum = (int)($sum / 2);
  
    for ($i = 0; $i < 3; $i++)
    {
  
        // Row sum excluding the 
        // diagonal element
        $rowSum = 0;
        for ($j = 0; $j < 3; $j++)
            $rowSum += $sq[$i][$j];
  
        // Element that must be inserted at
        // diagonal element of the current row
        $sq[$i][$i] = $sum - $rowSum;
    }
  
    // Print the updated matrix
    for ($i = 0; $i < 3; $i++) 
    {
        for ($j = 0; $j < 3; $j++)
            echo $sq[$i][$j] . " ";
        echo "\n";
    }
}
  
// Driver Code
$sq = array(array(0, 7, 6),
            array(9, 0, 1),
            array(4, 3, 0));
  
printFilledDiagonal($sq);
  
// This code is contributed 
// by Akanksha Rai
?>


Output:

2 7 6 
9 5 1 
4 3 8

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