Embedding Interfaces in Golang

In Go language, the interface is a collection of method signatures and it is also a type means you can create a variable of an interface type. As we know that the Go language does not support inheritance, but the Go interface fully supports embedding. In embedding, an interface can embed other interfaces or an interface can embed other interface’s method signatures in it, the result of both is the same as shown in Example 1 and 2. You are allowed to embed any number of interfaces in a single interface. And when an interface, embed other interfaces in it if we made any changes in the methods of the interfaces, then it will reflect in the embedded interface also, as shown in Example 3.

Syntax:

type interface_name1 interface {

    Method1()
}

type interface_name2 interface {

    Method2()
}

type finalinterface_name interface {

    interface_name1
    interface_name2
}

or

type interface_name1 interface {

    Method1()
}

type interface_name2 interface {

    Method2()
}

type finalinterface_name interface {

    Method1()
    Method2()
}

Example 1:



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// Go program to illustrate the concept
// of the embedding interfaces
package main
  
import "fmt"
  
// Interface 1
type AuthorDetails interface {
  
    details()
}
  
// Interface 2
type AuthorArticles interface {
  
    articles()
}
  
// Interface 3
  
// Interface 3 embedded with
// interface 1 and 2
type FinalDetails interface {
  
    AuthorDetails
    AuthorArticles
}
  
// Structure
type author struct {
  
    a_name    string
    branch    string
    college   string
    year      int
    salary    int
    particles int
    tarticles int
}
  
// Implementing method of 
// the interface 1
func (a author) details() {
  
    fmt.Printf("Author Name: %s", a.a_name)
    fmt.Printf("\nBranch: %s and passing year: %d",
                                  a.branch, a.year)
    fmt.Printf("\nCollege Name: %s", a.college)
    fmt.Printf("\nSalary: %d", a.salary)
    fmt.Printf("\nPublished articles: %d", a.particles)
}
  
// Implementing method 
// of the interface 2
func (a author) articles() {
  
    pendingarticles := a.tarticles - a.particles
    fmt.Printf("\nPending articles: %d", pendingarticles)
}
  
// Main value
func main() {
  
    // Assigning values
    // to the structure
    values := author{
        a_name:    "Mickey",
        branch:    "Computer science",
        college:   "XYZ",
        year:      2012,
        salary:    50000,
        particles: 209,
        tarticles: 309,
    }
  
    // Accessing the methods of 
    // the interface 1 and 2
    // Using FinalDetails interface
    var f FinalDetails = values
    f.details()
    f.articles()
}

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Output:

Author Name: Mickey
Branch: Computer science and passing year: 2012
College Name: XYZ
Salary: 50000
Published articles: 209
Pending articles: 100

Explanation: As shown in the above example we have three interfaces. Interface 1 and 2 are simple interfaces and interface 3 is the embedded interface which holds both 1 and 2 interfaces in it. So if any changes take place in the interface 1 and interface 2 will reflect in interface 3. And interface 3 can access all the methods present in interface 1 and 2.

Example 2:

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// Go program to illustrate the
// concept of embedding interfaces
package main
  
import "fmt"
  
// Interface 1
type AuthorDetails interface {
    details()
}
  
// Interface 2
type AuthorArticles interface {
    articles()
}
  
// Interface 3
  
// Interface 3 embedded with 
// interface 1 and 2's methods
type FinalDetails interface {
  
    details()
    articles()
}
  
// Structure
type author struct {
  
    a_name    string
    branch    string
    college   string
    year      int
    salary    int
    particles int
    tarticles int
}
  
// Implementing method of
// the interface 1
func (a author) details() {
  
    fmt.Printf("Author Name: %s", a.a_name)
    fmt.Printf("\nBranch: %s and passing year: %d", a.branch, a.year)
    fmt.Printf("\nCollege Name: %s", a.college)
    fmt.Printf("\nSalary: %d", a.salary)
    fmt.Printf("\nPublished articles: %d", a.particles)
}
  
// Implementing method 
// of the interface 2
func (a author) articles() {
    pendingarticles := a.tarticles - a.particles
    fmt.Printf("\nPending articles: %d", pendingarticles)
}
  
// Main value
func main() {
  
    // Assigning values
    // to the structure
    values := author{
        a_name:    "Mickey",
        branch:    "Computer science",
        college:   "XYZ",
        year:      2012,
        salary:    50000,
        particles: 209,
        tarticles: 309,
    }
  
    // Accessing the methods 
    // of the interface 1 and 2
    // Using FinalDetails interface
    var f FinalDetails = values
    f.details()
    f.articles()
}

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Output:

Author Name: Mickey
Branch: Computer science and passing year: 2012
College Name: XYZ
Salary: 50000
Published articles: 209
Pending articles: 100

Explanation: As shown in the above example we have three interfaces. Interface 1 and 2 are simple interfaces and interface 3 is the embedded interface which holds both 1 and 2 interfaces method signatures in it. So if any changes take place in the interface 1 and interface 2’s methods it will reflect in interface 3. And interface 3 can access all the methods present in interface 1 and 2.

Example 3:

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// Go program to illustrate the concept
// of the embedding interfaces
package main
  
import "fmt"
  
// Interface 1
type AuthorDetails interface {
    details()
}
  
// Interface 2
type AuthorArticles interface {
    articles()
    picked()
}
  
// Interface 3
// Interface 3 embedded with interface 
// 1's method and interface 2
// And also contain its own method
type FinalDetails interface {
    details()
    AuthorArticles
    cdeatils()
}
  
// Structure
type author struct {
    a_name    string
    branch    string
    college   string
    year      int
    salary    int
    particles int
    tarticles int
    cid       int
    post      string
    pick      int
}
  
// Implementing method 
// of the interface 1
func (a author) details() {
  
    fmt.Printf("Author Name: %s", a.a_name)
    fmt.Printf("\nBranch: %s and passing year: %d", a.branch, a.year)
    fmt.Printf("\nCollege Name: %s", a.college)
    fmt.Printf("\nSalary: %d", a.salary)
    fmt.Printf("\nPublished articles: %d", a.particles)
}
  
// Implementing methods 
// of the interface 2
func (a author) articles() {
  
    pendingarticles := a.tarticles - a.particles
    fmt.Printf("\nPending articles: %d", pendingarticles)
}
  
func (a author) picked() {
  
    fmt.Printf("\nTotal number of picked articles: %d", a.pick)
}
  
// Implementing the method
// of the embedded interface
func (a author) cdeatils() {
  
    fmt.Printf("\nAuthor Id: %d", a.cid)
    fmt.Printf("\nPost: %s", a.post)
}
  
// Main value
func main() {
  
    // Assigning values to the structure
    values := author{
      
        a_name:    "Mickey",
        branch:    "Computer science",
        college:   "XYZ",
        year:      2012,
        salary:    50000,
        particles: 209,
        tarticles: 309,
        cid:       3087,
        post:      "Technical content writer",
        pick:      58,
    }
  
    // Accessing the methods 
    // of the interface 1 and 2
    // Using FinalDetails interface
    var f FinalDetails = values
    f.details()
    f.articles()
    f.picked()
    f.cdeatils()
}

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Output:

Author Name: Mickey
Branch: Computer science and passing year: 2012
College Name: XYZ
Salary: 50000
Published articles: 209
Pending articles: 100
Total number of picked articles: 58
Author Id: 3087
Post: Technical content writer

Explanation: As shown in the above example we have three interfaces. Interface 1 and 2 are simple interfaces and interface 3 is the embedded interface which holds both interface 1’s method signatures, interface 2 and it’s own method in it. So if any changes take place in the interface 1’s methods and interface 2 it will reflect in interface 3. And interface 3 can access all the methods present in it including interface 1, 2, and its own.



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