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Advantages and Problems of Education System in India

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A comprehensive Education System in India is highly required to leave a footprint on the world map. Let’s discuss how education in India has evolved over the years, various educational policies, governing bodies, and some issues that still persist in the educational system. The Indian education system has gained recognition on a global scale for its respectable character diversity.

In India, education is a complicated process that is governed by numerous regulating agencies. This article will go into great detail on the several regulating bodies that are in charge of the education system in India.

Education System in India

Education System in india

Indian Education System

The education system in India has four levels: lower essential (age 6 to 10), upper essential (11 and 12), high (13 to 15), and higher optional (17 and 18). The lower elementary school is separated into five “guidelines”, upper-grade school into two, secondary school into three, and higher optional into two. Throughout the long term, instructive improvement in India has seen an ocean of progress. We can sum up the Indian education system changes or advancements as follows:

  • Comprehensive Education in India: With the presentation of late morning suppers and RTE in schools, the government has figured out how to draw in an enormous part of understudies from the rustic area and understudies from beneath the destitution line. The government has made essential instruction free for all kids under the age of 14, subsequently drawing in additional understudies.
  • Specific Education in India: Aside from general instruction and essential training, the government of India has set up a few expert establishments for the advancement of specific courses like designing, medication, and the executive’s foundations.
  • Gender Equality in Education: The government of India has contrived a few plans to advance schooling among ladies, an idea that India slacks. A few government plans like Beti Bachao, and Beti Padhao has seen humongous progress as of late.
  • Advanced education in India: Today, India has plenty of valuable colleges. The presence of the public, as well as confidential universities, has worked on the nature of advanced education in the country.
  • Adult Education in India: To empower the training of individuals in the age gathering of 15 to 35, the initial five-year plan of the government laid out the National Board for Adult Education.
  • Professional Training: Professional preparation has been a piece of training improvement in India right all along. The initial five-year plan and all the resulting schooling arrangements in India laid weight on the professional preparation of the young.

Types of Education System in India

Two types of education system in India are: formal and informal. Formal education refers to the imparting of knowledge in schools, colleges, and also universities with a curriculum in hand. Informal education refers to the education provided outside the formal education system and does not have a set curriculum:

Formal Education: Formal education in India consists of 5 primary schooling, which is followed by 3 years of middle school and two years of high school. After the completion of high school, students can pursue higher education at college or university level.

Indian Higher Education

Indian Higher Education

Informal Education: Informal types of education are the ones provided outside the formal education system and do not usually follow a set curriculum. Informal education consists of training programs, workshops, and different forms of internship.

Development of Education System in India

The Indian schooling system has developed generally from the Vedic days to the present PC age and e-learning. Notwithstanding, there is one thing that stays normal between the two situations, and that is the significance of schooling. As Indians, our folks have forever been underscoring the significance of training. Nonetheless, the schooling situation wasn’t this way since the presence of man. The education system in India has developed impressively from the vedic times to now and just to improve things.

  • In ancient days it is most likely the case that the city individuals were more taught than the rustic regions. A greater part of the young men went to the gathering schools. Scarcely any young ladies figured out how to peruse yet didn’t go to school. To study, mentors were called home.
  • Now both boys and young ladies are lawfully expected to go to class. On the off chance that they don’t, it could prompt lawful indictment of guardians.
  • In ancient days someone who showed a sensible comprehension of the presence of God, otherworldly training, Hindu religion, Vedas, and so forth, so the general public was worked without defilement and turmoil. This brought monstrous satisfaction to the existence of mankind.
  • In present days, someone who shows the abilities expected for science and innovation, PC information, how to contend, and so on.
  • In ancient days somebody who displayed a reasonable appreciation of the presence of God, supernatural preparation, Hindu religion, Vedas, etc, so the overall population was worked without contamination and disturbance. This carried massive fulfillment to the presence of humanity.
  • In present days, somebody who shows the capacities expected for science and development, PC data, how to battle, etc.
  • In ancient days, education was viewed as significant, yet there wasn’t a pattern of not having book learning. However there was a requirement for perusing and composing exercises, for example, casting a ballot, this didn’t humiliate the residents or bring disgrace any time of life. 
  • At present days, education is viewed as renowned and financially significant. Guardians from varying backgrounds believe their youngsters should go to class, and do well in school. Being poor at school work is a dangerous wellspring of social disgrace for some.

India, being an immense country with different religions, ranks, and doctrines, isn’t difficult to execute current techniques. Schooling arrangements in India additionally experience the ill effects of execution issues.

Schemes and Campaigns to Boost Education System in India

India has implemented several education policies over the years aimed at improving the quality of education, increasing access to education, and enhancing the overall education system in India. Some of the significant education policies in India are:

  1. National Policy on Education (2020): The National Policy on Education (NPE) was recently revised in 2020, replacing the previous policy implemented in 1986. The policy focuses on making education more inclusive, flexible, and holistic, promoting multidisciplinary learning, and integrating technology in education.
  2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA): Launched in 2001, the SSA aimed to provide free and compulsory education to all children aged 6-14 years. The program aimed to bridge the gap between rural and urban education and improve the quality of education in government schools.
  3. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA): Launched in 2009, the RMSA aimed to improve the access and quality of secondary education in the country.
  4. Right to Education Act (RTE): The RTE Act was passed in 2009 and made education a fundamental right for all children aged 6-14 years. The Act aimed to provide free and compulsory education to all children and ensure that they receive a quality education.
  5. Midday Meal Scheme: Launched in 1995, the Midday Meal Scheme aims to provide free meals to children studying in government and government-aided schools to improve enrollment and attendance rates.
  6. National Skill Development Policy: The National Skill Development Policy was launched in 2009 to provide vocational training to young people and enhance their employability.

These policies have helped to address the various challenges faced by the Indian education system and have led to significant improvements in education outcomes. However, there is still a need for further reforms to ensure that all children in India have access to quality education.

Governing Bodies in Indian Education System

The Indian school education system is overseen by three national bodies:

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is a national-level council for technical education under the “Department of Higher Education”. It was established in November 1945 as an advisory body. In 1987, AICTE was given statutory status by an Act of Parliament, the All India Council for Technical Education Act of 1987.

As per the Act, AICTE is the statutory authority for proper planning, formulation, and maintenance of standards, Quality assurance through school accreditation, monitoring and evaluation, maintaining, certifications and awards, and ensuring coordinated development and management of the technical education in India.

University Grants Commission (UGC)

Based on the recommendation made by the Univesity Education Commission of 1948, the Univesity Grants Commission (UGC) was set up on 28 December 1953. The government decided that all grants to universities and higher learning institutions should be handled by the UGC.

In November 1956, the UGC became the statutory body by enacting the “University Grants Commission Act of 1956” by the Indian Parliament. The headquarter of UGC is located in New Delhi. In 1994, the UGC decentralized its operations by setting up six regional offices in Bangalore, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kolkata, and Pune.

UGC promotes and coordinates university education and determines & maintains standards of teaching, examination, and research in the universities. It provides recognization to universities in India and disbursements of funds to such recognized universities and colleges.

National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT)

The Government of India established the National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT) on 27 July 1961 to assist and advise the Central and State governments on policies and programs for qualitative improvement in school education. It is an autonomous organization that formally began operation on 1 September 1961. The Council was formed by merging seven existing seven national governmental institutions, namely:

  • Central Institute of Education,
  • Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance,
  • Central Bureau of Textbook Research,
  • Directorate of Extension Programmes for Secondary Education,
  • National Institute of Basic Education,
  • National Fundamental Education Centre
  • National Institute of Audio-Visual Education.

Problems in Indian Education System

The following are the current issues with Indian education system:

  1. Capacity utilization – The world now requires creative minds, and the government must encourage schools to help students maximize their abilities and not let their ideas go unheard.
  2. India must adopt the UN’s gross enrollment pattern.
  3. Expenditure on education –  More funds should be allocated for the development of education system in India. Though India has taken many beneficial steps in the past few years and if the same is continued India may soon be overcome the current challenges.
  4. Student-teacher ratio: The number of students seeking proper education far outnumbers the number of teachers and faculty available. As a result, qualified teachers must be appointed to educate the country’s future citizens.
  5. PPP model – PPPs that are well-designed can serve as models of innovation for India’s school system. As a result, the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model must be considered.
  6. Infrastructure facilities – Better infrastructure, particularly in government schools, is required.  Because the government is now focusing on digital education, they must take steps to provide the necessary amenities in government schools as well as rural areas.

Conclusion on Education System in India

The education system in India has come a long way and it will take time to consider it completely effective. Many initiatives are taken by taking into consideration of the government and other organizations for improving the situation. With time and continuous effort, the education system of India is considered to meet the expectations of its citizens.

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FAQs on Education System in India

What are the 5 points of education system in India?

Preschool education, primary level education, secondary level education, senior secondary level education, and graduate and above level education are the five divisions of the Indian educational system. Any student between the ages of 6 and 14 must complete the first three levels.

Who is the apex regulating body for school education in India?

The Ministry of Human Resource Development is the governing body for school education in India.

Which is best education system in India?

In terms of educational achievement, Kerala was and remains one of the top states in the country. With a literacy rate of 93.91%, Kerala has the highest percentage of any state in the nation, and since the 2001 census, it has increased by as much as 3%.

What are the types of education which is offered in India?

The types of education which is offered in India are primary, secondary, and tertiary education.

Is Indian education system good?

Indian education system has gained recognition on a global scale for its respectable character diversity. The institute instruction programme in India is managed by numerous educational planning agencies.

What is the curriculum for schools in India like?

The curriculum for schools in India is based on the National Curriculum Framework, last updated in 2005. The Framework highlights the goals of education in India and how it can be better taught in India.

How is the Indian education system in the world?

The Indian Education system ranks 33 in the world and the quality of education is rated at 59.1.



Last Updated : 21 Jan, 2024
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