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Difference Between Glutamate and Glutamine

Last Updated : 14 Jun, 2023
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Difference Between Glutamate and Glutamine: Glutamate and Glutamine are two amino acids. Amino acids are essential biomolecules that participate in the synthesis of a variety of proteins in living systems. The Primary difference between glutamate and glutamine is that glutamate is a non-essential amino acid that is considered the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the nervous system. whereas glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that performs a variety of functions in the body.

Difference Between Glutamine and Glutamate

Characteristics

Glutamine

Glutamate

Amino Acids

Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that performs a variety of functions in the body.

Glutamate is a non-essential amino acid that is considered the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the nervous system

Charge

Glutamine molecule develops as a neutrally charged amino acid with polar characteristics.

It is glutamic acid’s divalent anion

Chemical Formula

Glutamine- C5H10N2O3

Glutamate- C5H9NO4

Production

The body can produce enough glutamine to meet its normal needs. Skeletal muscle contains 80% of the body’s glutamine supply.

Glutamate is recycled and made by glial cells in your brain.

Function

Glutamine plays a role as an energy source and a donor for carbon and nitrogen and maintains ionic balance in the kidney and non-toxic transportation of ammonia in the blood

Glutamate is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter present in the nervous system. The function of an excitatory neurotransmitter is to energize a nerve cell.

What is Glutamine?

Glutamine is an important amino acid that is produced by the human body. In fact, it is present in large amounts in the body. It is one of the 20 amino acids that comprise all proteins. Glutamine molecules are conditionally essential amino acids. The glutamine molecule is made up of an α-amino group, and an α-carboxylic acid group, which become protonated and deprotonated, respectively, under specific biological conditions. It develops when the hydroxyl side chain of glutamic acid is replaced by an amide side chain; an amine functional group. At physiological pH conditions, the glutamine molecule develops as a neutrally charged amino acid with polar characteristics.

Glutamine.png

It indicates that during traumatic conditions is necessary. Glutamine should be obtained from the diet. Dietary sources of glutamine should be preferred. Protein-rich foods including cattle, eggs, fish, chicken, cabbage, papaya, wheat, and spinach are good sources of glutamine. It is also required to comprise other amino acids and glucose molecules. Furthermore, glutamine is important in numerous aspects. One of the most important functions of glutamine is its role in the immune system. It serves as a fuel source for immunological cells, such as white blood cells and some intestinal cells. It is also involved in the synthesis of proteins and lipids. Glutamine also controlled the acid-base balance in the kidney by developing ammonium. It can also be helpful when providing nitrogen for specific anabolic activities. It transports ammonia harmlessly through the bloodstream. Additionally, glutamine helps in the non-toxic transfer of ammonia in the blood and serves as a precursor for the creation of the amino acid glutamate.

What is Glutamate?

Glutamate is part of a non-essential amino acid. It is glutamic acid’s divalent anion and also consists of a neurotransmitter. Glutamate is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter present in the nervous system. The function of an excitatory neurotransmitter is to energize a nerve cell. Glutamate is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is composed of the glial cells of the nervous system.  Gamma-aminobutyric acid, another neurotransmitter in the brain, is also made up of glutamate.

Glutamic-Acid.

Additionally, these neurotransmitters remain in synaptic vesicles that may be present at the axon terminal on each nerve cell. These thick-walled vesicles also consist of 1000 neurotransmitter molecules. Electrical charges that move along the nerve cell after reaching the end of the nerve cell cause the vesicle transfer to glutamate (neurotransmitter) into the fluid-filled gap between nerve cells. After that, the nerve cell’s unique message-receiving receptors are bound by the glutamate molecules. The subsequent nerve cell undergoes a change as a result of this neurotransmitter. Signals are transmitted from one nerve cell to the next in this manner. 

Similarities Between Glutamine and Glutamate

  • Both glutamate and glutamine are amino acids and perform a variety of functions in the human body.
  • Both amino acids consist of the carboxylic acid chemical group.
  • Glutamine and glutamate are alkaline and consist of nitrogen.
  • Both amino acids participate in Protein Synthesis.

FAQs on Glutamine and Glutamate

Q1: How are glutamate and glutamine related to each other?

Answer:

Glutamine is the precursor of glutamate, the most prevalent excitatory amino acid in the brain and a necessary energy source, thus serving dual functions in the central nervous system.

Q2: Why are glutamine and glutamate necessary?

Answer:

In addition to being substrates for protein synthesis and anabolic precursors for muscle growth, glutamine and glutamate also govern acid-base balance in the kidney, act as substrates for ureagenesis in the liver, and are involved in both hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis.

Q3: How basic or acidic is glutamine?

Answer:

Glutamine molecule develops as a neutrally charged amino acid with polar characteristics.



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