Definition of descriptor :
Python descriptors are created to manage the attributes of different classes which use the object as reference. In descriptors we used three different methods that are
__delete__(). If any of those methods are defined for an object, it can be termed as a descriptor. Normally, Python uses methods like getters and setters to adjust the values on attributes without any special processing. It’s just a basic storage system. Sometimes, You might need to validate the values that are being assigned to a value. A descriptor is a mechanism behind properties, methods, static methods, class methods, and
Descriptor protocol :
In other programming languages, descriptors are referred to as setter and getter, where public functions are used to Get and Set a private variable. Python doesn’t have a private variables concept, and descriptor protocol can be considered as a Pythonic way to achieve something similar. Descriptors are a new way to implement classes in Python, and it does not need to inherit anything from a particular object. To implement descriptors easily in python we have to use at least one of the methods that are defined above. Note that instance below returns to the object where the attribute was accessed, and the owner is the class where the descriptor was assigned as an attribute. There are three protocol in python descriptor for setters, getters and delete method.
gfg.__get__(self, obj, type=None): This attribute is called when you want to retrieve the information
(value = obj.attr), and whatever it returns is what will be given to the code that requested the attribute’s value.
gfg.__set__(self, obj, value): This method is called to set the values of an attribute
(obj.attr = 'value'), and it will not return anything to you.
gfg.__delete__(self, obj): This method is called when the attribute is deleted from an object
Invoking descriptor :
Descriptors are invoked automatically whenever it receives the call for a
set() method or
get() method. For example,
obj.gfg looks up gfg in the dictionary of
obj. If gfg defines the method
gfg.__get__(obj) is invoked. It can also directly be invoked by method name i.e
The important points to remember are:
- Descriptors are invoked by the
__getattribute__()prevents automatic descriptor calls.
type.__getattribute__()make different calls to
- Data descriptors always override instance dictionaries.
- Non-data descriptors may be overridden by instance dictionaries.
Descriptor Example :
In this Example a data descriptor sets and returns values normally and prints a message logging their access.
Creating a Descriptor using property() :
property(), it is easy to create a usable descriptor for any attribute. Syntax for creating
property(fget=None, fset=None, fdel=None, doc=None)
Getting value GeeksforGeeks Setting value to GfG Deleting value
Creating a Descriptor using class methods :
In this we create a class and override any of the descriptor methods
__ get__, and
__delete__. This method is used when the same descriptor is needed across many different classes and attributes, for example, for type validation.
Creating a Descriptor using @property Decorator :
In this we use the power of property decorators which are a combination of property type method and Python decorators.
Getting value Peter Setting value to Diesel Deleting value
- Reading Python File-Like Objects from C | Python
- Important differences between Python 2.x and Python 3.x with examples
- Python | Convert list to Python array
- Python | Index of Non-Zero elements in Python list
- Python | Merge Python key values to list
- Python | Add Logging to a Python Script
- Python | Add Logging to Python Libraries
- Python | Set 4 (Dictionary, Keywords in Python)
- Python | Sort Python Dictionaries by Key or Value
- Python | Visualizing O(n) using Python
- Python | a += b is not always a = a + b
- Python Set | pop()
- Any & All in Python
- Use of min() and max() in Python
If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to email@example.com. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.