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D3.js is a JavaScript library for managing HTML documents based on data. D3.js is one of the most effective frameworks to work on data visualization. It allows the developer to create dynamic, interactive data visualizations in the browser with the help of HTML, CSS, and SVG. The word D3 is an abbreviation of Data-Driven Documents. D3.js was created by Mike Bostock and was first introduced in 2011.

D3.js Tutorial  

Data visualization is the representation of filtered data in the form of pictures and graphics. Graphical or pictorial representations present even complex data sets with ease. Also, comparative analytics or patterns can be easily traced with the help of data visualization, thus enabling the client to make decisions without much brainstorming. Such visualizations can be easily developed using frameworks such as D3.js. Though there are many other frameworks for Data visualization, D3.js has left its footmark because of its flexibility and learnability.

Features of D3.js:

There are many other platforms or frameworks available for managing data visualization, but D3 has left all the other frameworks behind because of being extremely flexible.

  • Visualization: D3 uses the web standards such as HTML, CSS, and SVG. It renders powerful visualization graphics.
  • Data-Driven Approach: The data-driven approach allows D3 to retrieve the data from different web nodes or servers and analyze it furthermore to render visualizations. Moreover, it can also use static data for processing.
  • Variations of Basic to Advance: D3 allows variations in tools for the creation of graphics. It is a basic structured table or a well-analyzed pie chart. It’s libraries vary from the most basic tools to an advanced set of resources. Even complex GIS Mapping can be done using D3. Even it allows customized visualizations as per the need. Nevertheless, it’s all possible due to its support of Web Standards.
  • Re-useability of Code: It even supports large datasets and makes the most use of it’s predefined libraries, thus enabling users to reuse code.
  • Animation & Transition Support: Transitions and animations are supported and D3 manages the logic implicitly. This one doesn’t need to manage or create them explicitly. Animation rendering is responsive and supports fast transmission between internal states.
  • DOM Manipulation: One of the key features of D3 is that it supports DOM manipulation and is flexible enough to dynamically manage the properties of it’s handlers.

Reason to learn D3.js:

Date is everything these days, data is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it is often visualized using graphs, images, or other analysis tools. Raw data (“unprocessed data”) may be a collection of numbers or characters before it’s been “cleaned” and corrected by researchers. It must be corrected so that we can remove outliers, instrument or data entry errors.

According to the Oxford “Data is distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way”.

Let’s take an example. Suppose you compile a data visualization of the company’s profits from 2010 to 2020 and create a graph. It would be very easy to see the graph line going constantly up with a drop in just 2018. So you can observe in a second that the company has had continuous profits in all the years except a loss in 2018. It would not be that easy to get this information so fast from a data table.

Installation of D3.js:

Step 1: Download the latest version of the D3.js library from the official website (D3.js website). Currently, the latest version of D3.js is v7.8.1.

Step 2: Extract the zipped file obtained after the download

Step 3: Search for the d3.min.js file which is present inside the dist folder.

Step 4: Copy this file to the root folder or the main library directory of the web page.

Project Structure

D3.js project structure

D3.js project structure

Another short and easier way to use D3.js directly is by including the following script tag in your index.html file:

<script src=""></script>

Example: In this example, we will render the properties of DOM using D3.js and print the greatest of an array using D3.js


<!DOCTYPE html>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type" 
          content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
    <!--linking D3.js-->
    <script src=""></script>
    <h1>Geeks for Geeks</h1>
    <h3>Example of D3.js</h3>
    <script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8">"body").style("text-align", "center");"h1").style("color", "green");"h3").style("color", "blue");
        var d3;
        var gfg = d3.greatest([5, 4, 3, 2, 1])
        console.log("The greatest number is: ",gfg)





Learn more about D3.js:

D3.js Complete References:

Drawbacks of D3.js:

D3.js is not compatible with the older versions of the browsers. Another important concern is security while using D3.js, Data can`t easily be hidden or protected using D3.js. D3.js is difficult for creative visual design graphs.

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Last Updated : 15 Mar, 2023
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