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Create a Doubly Linked List from a Ternary Tree
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 24 Dec, 2020

Given a ternary tree, create a doubly linked list out of it. A ternary tree is just like binary tree but instead of having two nodes, it has three nodes i.e. left, middle, right.

The doubly linked list should holds following properties –  

  1. Left pointer of ternary tree should act as prev pointer of doubly linked list.
  2. Middle pointer of ternary tree should not point to anything.
  3. Right pointer of ternary tree should act as next pointer of doubly linked list.
  4. Each node of ternary tree is inserted into doubly linked list before its subtrees and for any node, its left child will be inserted first, followed by mid and right child (if any).

For the above example, the linked list formed for below tree should be NULL <- 30 <-> 5 <-> 1 <-> 4 <-> 8 <-> 11 <-> 6 <-> 7 <-> 15 <-> 63 <-> 31 <-> 55 <-> 65 -> NULL 
 

tree

We strongly recommend you to minimize your browser and try this yourself first.
The idea is to traverse the tree in preoder fashion similar to binary tree preorder traversal. Here, when we visit a node, we will insert it into doubly linked list in the end using a tail pointer. That we use to maintain the required insertion order. We then recursively call for left child, middle child and right child in that order.



Below is the implementation of this idea. 

C++

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// C++ program to create a doubly linked list out
// of given a ternary tree.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
/* A ternary tree */
struct Node
{
    int data;
    struct Node *left, *middle, *right;
};
 
/* Helper function that allocates a new node with the
   given data and assign NULL to left, middle and right
   pointers.*/
Node* newNode(int data)
{
    Node* node = new Node;
    node->data = data;
    node->left = node->middle = node->right = NULL;
    return node;
}
 
/* Utility function that constructs doubly linked list
by inserting current node at the end of the doubly
linked list by using a tail pointer */
void push(Node** tail_ref, Node* node)
{
    // initilize tail pointer
    if (*tail_ref == NULL)
    {
        *tail_ref = node;
 
        // set left, middle and right child to point
        // to NULL
        node->left = node->middle = node->right = NULL;
 
        return;
    }
 
    // insert node in the end using tail pointer
    (*tail_ref)->right = node;
 
    // set prev of node
    node->left = (*tail_ref);
 
    // set middle and right child to point to NULL
    node->right = node->middle = NULL;
 
    // now tail pointer will point to inserted node
    (*tail_ref) = node;
}
 
/* Create a doubly linked list out of given a ternary tree.
by traversing the tree in preoder fashion. */
Node* TernaryTreeToList(Node* root, Node** head_ref)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == NULL)
        return NULL;
 
    //create a static tail pointer
    static Node* tail = NULL;
 
    // store left, middle and right nodes
    // for future calls.
    Node* left = root->left;
    Node* middle = root->middle;
    Node* right = root->right;
 
    // set head of the doubly linked list
    // head will be root of the ternary tree
    if (*head_ref == NULL)
        *head_ref = root;
 
    // push current node in the end of DLL
    push(&tail, root);
 
    //recurse for left, middle and right child
    TernaryTreeToList(left, head_ref);
    TernaryTreeToList(middle, head_ref);
    TernaryTreeToList(right, head_ref);
}
 
// Utility function for printing double linked list.
void printList(Node* head)
{
    printf("Created Double Linked list is:\n");
    while (head)
    {
        printf("%d ", head->data);
        head = head->right;
    }
}
 
// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    // Construting ternary tree as shown in above figure
    Node* root = newNode(30);
 
    root->left = newNode(5);
    root->middle = newNode(11);
    root->right = newNode(63);
 
    root->left->left = newNode(1);
    root->left->middle = newNode(4);
    root->left->right = newNode(8);
 
    root->middle->left = newNode(6);
    root->middle->middle = newNode(7);
    root->middle->right = newNode(15);
 
    root->right->left = newNode(31);
    root->right->middle = newNode(55);
    root->right->right = newNode(65);
 
    Node* head = NULL;
 
    TernaryTreeToList(root, &head);
 
    printList(head);
 
    return 0;
}

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Java

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//Java program to create a doubly linked list
// from a given ternary tree.
 
//Custom node class.
class newNode
{
    int data;
    newNode left,middle,right;
    public newNode(int data)
    {
        this.data = data;
        left = middle = right = null;
    }
}
 
class GFG {
     
    //tail of the linked list.
    static newNode tail;
 
    //function to push the node to the tail.
    public static void push(newNode node)
    {
        //to put the node at the end of
        // the already existing tail.
        tail.right = node;                
         
        //to point to the previous node.
        node.left = tail;        
         
        // middle pointer should point to
        // nothing so null. initiate right
        // pointer to null.
        node.middle = node.right = null;
         
        //update the tail position.
        tail = node;            
    }
     
    /* Create a doubly linked list out of given a ternary tree.
    by traversing the tree in preoder fashion. */
    public static void ternaryTree(newNode node,newNode head)
    {
        if(node == null)
            return;                    
        newNode left = node.left;
        newNode middle = node.middle;
        newNode right = node.right;
        if(tail != node)
         
            // already root is in the tail so dont push
            // the node when it was root.In the first
            // case both node and tail have root in them.
            push(node);            
             
        // First the left child is to be taken.
        // Then middle and then right child.
        ternaryTree(left,head);        
        ternaryTree(middle,head);
        ternaryTree(right,head);
    }
 
    //function to initiate the list process.
    public static newNode startTree(newNode root)
    {
        //Initiate the head and tail with root.
        newNode head = root;
        tail = root;
        ternaryTree(root,head);
         
        //since the head,root are passed
        // with reference the changes in
        // root will be reflected in head.
        return head;        
    }
     
    // Utility function for printing double linked list.
    public static void printList(newNode head)
    {
        System.out.print("Created Double Linked list is:\n");
        while(head != null)
        {
            System.out.print(head.data + " ");
            head = head.right;
        }
    }
     
    // Driver program to test above functions
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
         
        // Construting ternary tree as shown
        // in above figure
        newNode root = new newNode(30);
        root.left = new newNode(5);
        root.middle = new newNode(11);
        root.right = new newNode(63);
        root.left.left = new newNode(1);
        root.left.middle = new newNode(4);
        root.left.right = new newNode(8);
        root.middle.left = new newNode(6);
        root.middle.middle = new newNode(7);
        root.middle.right = new newNode(15);
        root.right.left = new newNode(31);
        root.right.middle = new newNode(55);
        root.right.right = new newNode(65);
         
        // The function which initiates the list
        // process returns the head.
        newNode head = startTree(root);        
        printList(head);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by M.V.S.Surya Teja.

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Python3

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# Python3 program to create a doubly linked
# list out of given a ternary tree.
   
# Custom node class.
class newNode:
     
    def __init__(self, data):
         
        self.data = data
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
        self.middle = None
 
class GFG:
     
    def __init__(self):
         
        # Tail of the linked list.
        self.tail = None
 
    # Function to push the node to the tail.
    def push(self, node):
 
        # To put the node at the end of
        # the already existing tail.
        self.tail.right = node
 
        # To point to the previous node.
        node.left = self.tail
 
        # Middle pointer should point to 
        # nothing so null. initiate right
        # pointer to null.
        node.middle = node.right = None
 
        # Update the tail position.
        self.tail = node
 
    # Create a doubly linked list out of given
    # a ternary tree By traversing the tree in
    # preoder fashion.
    def ternaryTree(self, node, head):
         
        if node == None:
            return
 
        left = node.left
        middle = node.middle
        right = node.right
         
        if self.tail != node:
             
            # Already root is in the tail so dont push 
            # the node when it was root.In the first 
            # case both node and tail have root in them.
            self.push(node)
 
        # First the left child is to be taken.
        # Then middle and then right child.
        self.ternaryTree(left, head) 
        self.ternaryTree(middle, head)
        self.ternaryTree(right, head)
 
    def startTree(self, root):
         
        # Initiate the head and tail with root.
        head = root
        self.tail = root
        self.ternaryTree(root, head)
 
        # Since the head,root are passed 
        # with reference the changes in 
        # root will be reflected in head.
        return head
 
    # Utility function for printing double linked list.
    def printList(self, head):
         
        print("Created Double Linked list is:")
         
        while head:
            print(head.data, end = " ")
            head = head.right
 
# Driver code
if __name__ == '__main__':
     
    # Construting ternary tree as shown
    # in above figure
    root = newNode(30)
    root.left = newNode(5)
    root.middle = newNode(11)
    root.right = newNode(63)
    root.left.left = newNode(1)
    root.left.middle = newNode(4)
    root.left.right = newNode(8)
    root.middle.left = newNode(6)
    root.middle.middle = newNode(7)
    root.middle.right = newNode(15)
    root.right.left = newNode(31)
    root.right.middle = newNode(55)
    root.right.right = newNode(65)
 
    # The function which initiates the list 
    # process returns the head.
    head = None
    gfg = GFG()
    head = gfg.startTree(root)
     
    gfg.printList(head)
 
# This code is contributed by Winston Sebastian Pais

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C#

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// C# program to create a doubly linked
// list from a given ternary tree.
using System;
 
// Custom node class.
public class newNode
{
    public int data;
    public newNode left, middle, right;
    public newNode(int data)
    {
        this.data = data;
        left = middle = right = null;
    }
}
 
class GFG
{
 
// tail of the linked list.
public static newNode tail;
 
// function to push the node to the tail.
public static void push(newNode node)
{
    // to put the node at the end of
    // the already existing tail.
    tail.right = node;
 
    // to point to the previous node.
    node.left = tail;
 
    // middle pointer should point to
    // nothing so null. initiate right
    // pointer to null.
    node.middle = node.right = null;
 
    // update the tail position.
    tail = node;
}
 
/* Create a doubly linked list out
of given a ternary tree. by traversing
the tree in preoder fashion. */
public static void ternaryTree(newNode node,
                               newNode head)
{
    if (node == null)
    {
        return;
    }
    newNode left = node.left;
    newNode middle = node.middle;
    newNode right = node.right;
    if (tail != node)
    {
 
        // already root is in the tail so dont push
        // the node when it was root.In the first
        // case both node and tail have root in them.
        push(node);
    }
 
    // First the left child is to be taken.
    // Then middle and then right child.
    ternaryTree(left, head);
    ternaryTree(middle, head);
    ternaryTree(right, head);
}
 
// function to initiate the list process.
public static newNode startTree(newNode root)
{
    // Initiate the head and tail with root.
    newNode head = root;
    tail = root;
    ternaryTree(root,head);
 
    // since the head,root are passed
    // with reference the changes in
    // root will be reflected in head.
    return head;
}
 
// Utility function for printing
// double linked list.
public static void printList(newNode head)
{
    Console.Write("Created Double Linked list is:\n");
    while (head != null)
    {
        Console.Write(head.data + " ");
        head = head.right;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main(string[] args)
{
 
    // Construting ternary tree as shown
    // in above figure
    newNode root = new newNode(30);
    root.left = new newNode(5);
    root.middle = new newNode(11);
    root.right = new newNode(63);
    root.left.left = new newNode(1);
    root.left.middle = new newNode(4);
    root.left.right = new newNode(8);
    root.middle.left = new newNode(6);
    root.middle.middle = new newNode(7);
    root.middle.right = new newNode(15);
    root.right.left = new newNode(31);
    root.right.middle = new newNode(55);
    root.right.right = new newNode(65);
 
    // The function which initiates the list
    // process returns the head.
    newNode head = startTree(root);
    printList(head);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Shrikant13

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Output: 

Created Double Linked list is:
30 5 1 4 8 11 6 7 15 63 31 55 65

This article is contributed by Aditya Goel. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article and mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above
 

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