Git, as we know is a free and open-source version control system. These days git is being extensively used and therefore this article focuses on some of the common git tricks which everybody at some point of time requires while working with git or Github. Sometimes the user performs some mistakes while working on Git which results in the loss of information or wrong information being added.
To overcome this problem, Git provides some methods/tricks to rollback or modify the changes that were made wrong or made by mistake. Some of these problems along with their fixes are listed below:
Edit a commit message
Sometimes while writing the commit message, we make a typing error. The following commands can be used to fix the issue. Note that the below command creates a new commit so avoid using –amend for modifying commits which have been already pushed to a central repository.
git commit --amend // start the editor to edit message
git commit --amend -m"New message" // edit the commit message directly
If you forget to add a file while git add, then just add it and amend the previous commit.
git add forgotten_file_name
git commit --amend
Clean local commits before pushing
–amend is very useful to edit a commit message but it will not work if the commit you want to do is not the last one. In that case, rebase is used.
git rebase --interactive
// if you didn't specify any tracking information for this branch,
// add upstream and remote branch information:
git rebase --interactive origin branch
This will give the following menu:
You will see a list of options that you can use to be taken to a view where you can edit the message. However, as can be seen from the above listing, interactive rebases offer a lot more than simple commit message editing: you can completely remove commits by deleting them from the list, as well as edit, reorder, and squash them. Squashing allows you to merge several commits into one before pushing them to the remote.
Undo the local commits
Sometimes we realize that there is some error /mistake but by that time a few of the changes are committed locally.
git reset HEAD-2 // undo last 2 commits and keep changes
git reset --hard HEAD-2 // undo last two Commits,discard changes
Remove a file from GIT without removing from the file system
If you are not careful, you may add some unnecessary files during git add.
If you try to use git rm, it will remove the file from both the staging area as well as the file system.
git reset filename // or git remove --cached filename
echo filename >> .gitignore // add it to .gitignore to avoid re-adding it
This command removes the staged version only and adds the file to your .gitignore to avoid making the same mistake again.
Reverting pushed commits
Sometimes faulty commits do make it into the central repository even after amend and rebase. Therefore you can use the below commands
git revert c761f5c // reverts the commit with the specified id
git revert HEAD^ // reverts the second to last commit
git revert develop~4..develop~2 // reverts a whole range of commits
However, If you don’t want to create additional revert commits but only apply the necessary changes to your working tree, you can use the –no-commit/-n option.
git revert -n HEAD
Avoid repeated merge conflicts
Fixing Merge conflicts repeatedly is really bothersome.
Suppose your team is working on various feature branches at the same time. Now you want to merge all of them together. There are several merge conflicts, which you resolve. But it turns out that one of the branches isn’t quite there yet, so you decide to un-merge it again. After few days when the branch is finally ready,you merge it again, but thanks to the recorded resolutions, you won’t have to resolve the same merge conflicts again.
// Add it to your global config to enable it for all projects
git config --global rerere.enabled true
Find a commit that broke something after a merge
Sometimes there is a need to find a commit that changed the project wrongly. This bad commit is difficult to find and hence consumes a lot of time. Git has introduced a method to find this commit which broke something after the merge:
git bisect start // starts the bisecting session
git bisect bad // marks the current revision as bad
git bisect good revision // marks the last known good revision
Now, git will automatically checkout a revision halfway between the known “good” and “bad” versions.
git bisect good // OR git bisect bad
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