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Classification of Computer Network on basis of Architecture

  • Last Updated : 28 Jul, 2020

Computer networks are usually developed to fulfill needs of their clients and users.

Network architecture generally refers to design of computer network or communications network. It simply describes allocation task between all of computers in network. It is simply way in which all network devices and services are organized and managed to connect clients like laptops, tablets, servers, etc. and also how tasks are allocated to computer. It also facilitates system-level functionality even robustness, extensibility, and evolvability. It is basically defined and described as physical and logical design of software, hardware, protocols, and media of data transmission.

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Classification of Network based on use of computer nodes :
Network architecture is classified into following categories :



  1. Peer-to-Peer Network :
    In the P2P (Peer-to-Peer) network, “peers” generally represent computer system. These peers are connected to each other with help of Internet. Files might be shared directly without requirement of central server among these systems on the network. It can be said that each of computers on P2P network usually becomes file server even as client also. In this architecture, system is generally decomposed into various computational nodes that contain the same and equivalent capabilities, abilities, and responsibilities.

    In this network, tasks are allocated at each and every device available on network. This network is very essential and important for small environments, usually up to at least 10 computers. There is also no separate division as clients and servers. Each and every computer in this network are treated same and equally and might send even receive message directly. This P2P network is generally useful in various fields such as business, education, military, etc.

    Advantages :

    • Dedicated server or centralized is not very essential, so P2P network is less costly and is very cheaper. It is affordable.
    • P2P is very simple and not complex. This is because all computers that are connected in network communication in an efficient and well-mannered with each other.
    • It is very easy and simple to set up and manage as installation and setup is less painless and computer manages itself. This is because of built-in support in modern operating systems.

    Disadvantages :

    • Security is one of major issues in this type of network. This is because message that is sent flows freely among connected computers.
    • If computer working with some of resources is down and sharing of resources might become major problem.
    • Performance, security, and access can also become major problem and headache with an increase in number of computers on this network.
  2. Client/Server Network :
    CSN (Client/Server Network) is type of computer network in which one of centralized and powerful computers (commonly called as server) is hub to which many of personal computers that are less powerful or workstations (commonly known as clients) are connected. It is type of system where clients are connected to server to just share or use resources. These servers are generally considered as heart of system.

    This type of network is more stable and scalable as compared to P2P network. In this architecture, system is generally decomposed into client and server processor or processes. This architecture supports separation of functionality commonly based on concept of service.

    Advantages :

    • A special Network Operating System (NOS) is provided by server to provide resources to many users that request them.
    • It is also very easy and simple to set up and manage data updates. This is because data is generally stored in centralized manner on server.
    • The server usually controls resources and data security.
    • This network also boosts speed of sharing resources.

    Disadvantages :

    • If anyhow server goes down or crashes, entire will be affected by this.
    • It is very expensive as compared to P2P. This is due to need for server with greater memory as well as need for many networking devices such as hubs, routers, switches, etc.
    • Cost of NOS being provided is very high.
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