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5G Network Architecture

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  • Last Updated : 13 Nov, 2022
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The fifth generation mobile network is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates. 5G will use orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding bonded up to between 100 and 800 MHz channels.

The evolution of the mobile world is not all that 5G is, therefore the breadth of 5G extends beyond mobile communication to address all forms of communication services; in fact, it is truly supporting the future of the digital world by enabling all types of services, including critical/non-critical, voice/non-voice, and IoT. Promoting economic change across all sectors and utilizing all diverse technologies ( WiFi, 4G, and new radio technologies).

5G Architecture:

5G Architecture Diagram

5G Architecture Diagram

In service-based or reference point representation, the interaction between network operations is depicted. Service-based is how the 5G architecture is described.

One form of capability made available by an NF (NF Service Producer) to other authorized NF (NF Service Consumers) through a service-based interface is a network function service. One form of capability made available by an NF (NF Service Producer) to other authorized NF (NF Service Consumers) through a service-based interface is a network function service.

Network functions may expose one or more services, which means that a producer may give one or more consumers access to a service-based interface. It consists of a number of services, each of which is composed of a number of procedures in the manner of NNRF MANAGEMENT, NBSF MANAGEMENT, etc.

Difference between 4G and 5G Network Architecture:

 4G Network5G Network
1. Fourth-generation network.It is fifth generation network
2.It has a maximum download speed of 1 Gbps.It has a maximum download speed of 2.5 Gbps. 
3.It has a maximum upload speed of 500 Mbps.It has a maximum upload speed of 1.25Gbps
4.4G network architecture uses traditional RAN(radio access network) which are complex and requires costly infrastructure and has less/limited efficiency. 5G network architecture will be using C-RAN (Cloud Radio Access Network) for better and ultra-fast internet. 
5. 4G uses modulation techniques like QAM (Quadrature Amplitude modulation) and QPSK (Quadrature Phase shift keying).5G is said to be using the Amplitude Phase-Shift Keying technique. 

Functions of 5G network:

  1. NRF(Network Repository Function): All of the 5G network functions (NFs) in the operator’s network are stored centrally in the Network Repository Function (NRF). The NRF provides a standards-based API that enables 5G NFs to register and find one another. A crucial element needed to execute the new service-based architecture (SBA) in the 5G core is NRF.
  2. PCF (Policy Control Function): Policy Control Function makes it simple to develop and implement policies in a 5G network. PCF will help you monetize and reap the rewards of 5G because it was created and designed using cloud-native principles to address the demands of 5G services.
  3. BSF (Binding Support Function): The Session Binding Function on the Diameter Routing Agent (DRA) used in 4G is comparable to the 5G Binding Support Function (BSF). When numerous Policy Control Function (PCF) systems are installed in the network, it becomes a necessary necessity.
  4. SCP (Service Communication Proxy): By granting routing control, resiliency, and observability to the core network, Service Communication Proxy (SCP) enable operators to securely and effectively operate their 5G network. To address many of the issues brought on by the new service-based architecture (SBA) in the 5G core, SCP makes advantage of IT service mesh (ISTIO) and adds crucial capabilities to make it 5G-aware.
  5. NSSF (Network Slicing Selection Function): In the 5G environment, where a variety of services are offered, the NSSF (Network Slicing Selection Function) system is a solution to choose the best network slice available for the service requested by the user.
  6. UDM (Unified Data Management)& UDR (User Data Repository): UDM is cloud-native and created for 5G, similar to Home Subscriber Server (HSS) in LTE. It is in charge of creating the credentials needed for authentication, granting access depending on user subscription, and sending those credentials to the other network functions. It retrieves the credentials from the User Data Repository (UDR). Different key 5G features are supported by the UDM network function. In order to complete the authentication process, it creates authentication credentials. Based on user subscriptions, it approves network access and roaming.
  7. AUSF (Authentication Server Function): 5G authentication and Key Agreement method 5G AKA are carried out via the authentication server function. In order to manage hidden or privacy-protected subscription identifiers, AUSF also provides additional functionality. During the registration process, AMF(Access and Mobility Function) is in charge of choosing the proper Authentication Server Function (AUSF).
  8. NWDAF (Network Data Analytics Function): The 5G Network Data Analytics Function (NWDAF) is intended to improve the end-user experience by streamlining the production and consumption of key network data as well as generating insights and taking appropriate action. By expediting the production and consumption of core network data, creating insights, and acting on these insights, NWDAF is intended to address market fragmentation and proprietary solutions in the field of network analytics.

5G Core Network:

The 5G core network is the heart of 5G networking, it provides secure and reliable connectivity to the internet and access to all of the networking services. 5G core network has numerous essential functions for mobile networking like mobile management, subscriber data management, authorization, authentication policy management, etc. 

The 5G core network is completely software-based and native to the cloud, it allows higher deployment agility and has flexibility and infrastructure which is similar to the cloud. Industry experts designed the 5G core to support the network functioning of the 5G network. Therefore, the 3GPP standard was developed which was named 5G core, it has the power to control and manage network functions. 

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