Cells are the most important part of the human body. Even the brain is not superior to the cells. Brains can’t able to develop simply. The brain itself is the combination of millions of cells. So, there are the cells that are the main key in the body. In the cells, there is a need to have communication between the cells. Also, there is a need to have a bridge between two adjacent cells. These bridges are known as junctions. And the process is known as Cell Interaction.
What Is Cell-to-Cell Interaction?
Cell-to-cell interaction is the process by which two or more adjacent cells share their microenvironment. This process can be witnessed in the tissue of a certain area. Tissue is the combination of cells. There are lots of cells present in one small area. In those cases, there is cell to cell interaction happens. In between two or more cell linings, there are junctions. These junctions act as the bridge between two linings. The elements from one position to another passion move with the help of these junctions.
There is another method known as Cell Signaling. Cell signaling is a completely different operation. In cell signaling, one cell sends chemical messages to the other cell. And with the help of the chemical massage, those cells perform some commands. But in the cell-to-cell interaction, there is no command involved. In the cell-to-cell interaction, a simple exchange of elements happens from time to time. It is like the communication bridges in between the cell lining. And when there is a need to exchange the element, this process is. Is used. Sometimes, the junctions or interactions are very volatile. This means the cells can destroy the communication bridge. Whereas some other cells bond with a stable interaction.
Types Of Cell-to-Cell Interaction
There are mainly two types of cell-to-cell interaction present. it depends upon the strength of the bond between two cell linings. Depending upon the nature of the cells & function of the cells, these differences can be drawn.
- Stable Interaction: This is a type of cell-to-cell interaction. In this type, any cell lining doesn’t have to power to break it up. This means, there is no way that a cell can able to break up & moves to any other place. So, they are always in stable condition.
- Temporary Interaction: In this type of interaction, the bridges or junctions are not permanent. This means, with time, if there is a need then any cell lining can able to break the bridge & move away. They are not stable & permanently stay in the same position. Its stability depends upon the cell’s functions.
Stable Cell-to-Cell Interaction
The stable interactions have some different junctions. They are different types of bridges present between the cells. This type of junction is present in the Epithelial cells. or these junctions are present in normal growth cells or tissues. In those places, there is no need to break the interaction & move on. So, those bridges remain the same at that place.
As the name suggests, the Tight Junction is the junction that completely seals out the gap between two cells. This junction is present between two cells. In between the membrane of the two cells, these junction lies. This junction is completely impermeable of the water- & water-soluble substances. This means the water can’t able to pass out with this junction. So, the extracellular fluid can’t able to insert the cells. mainly the tissues, that have a large number of cells, have a tight junction. This is a complete layer inside the cells. These junctions are completely made up of proteins. This can be able to insert some substance in the cell wherever there will be some proper commands.
Adherens Junction & Desmosome
These are the junctions that are present below the Tight Junction. Their task is to provide support to the cell while attaching to the branch of the cells. Not only that, this junction helps to provide extra support to the cell. It helps to provide the shape of the cell. They are present in the lateral membrane of the cells. They are also present in the Epithelial Cells.
Desmosomes also help to maintain the shape & figure of the cell. It also helps to provide support to the cells. these junctions are present below the Adherens Junction. Desmosomes have an extracellular side in them. So, it can interact with the extracellular parts. Adherens Junction & Desmosome are collectively called the Anchoring Junction. All these junctions are made with the proteins & with ions at some places.
This is another type of junction. As the name suggests, there are small gaps in these junctions. These gaps are essential for the cells. These gaps are used as pores to transfer or exchange elements between two cells. These junctions are present at the bottom of all junctions. So, this junction is being used as the last entry point of the substances. There are lots of pores in these junctions. With these pores’ ions, sugar, and small substances can be exchanged between two cells in the tissue. This is a very important communication between the cells.
Temporary Cell-To-Cell Interaction
In the temporary interaction, there is no junction created. There is a kind of bond created between the cells. this bond is not much lasting because, at any point in time, these bonds get degraded. Then the cells get distributed. Due to the function & operations of the cells, these types of temporary interactions can be witnessed.
Interaction In The Immune System
The T-Lymphocytes cells are responsible for the immune system in the boy. Whenever there is any foreign element in the body, these cells move to that region in the human body. There they start doing operations on foreign elements. Primarily, these cells are situated in the epithelial cells of the inner layer of the blood vessels. Whenever there is a threat from a foreign element, the lymphocyte cells break interaction & move to that spot. This means the interaction with the lymphocyte cell & the epithelium cell of the inner layer of the blood vessel will be destroyed. So, the cells can able to move to the spot & perform operations there. So, this interaction is temporary.
Interaction In Coagulation
During blood coagulation, this type of temporary interaction can be witnessed. This means when blood vessels come across the outer environment, means there is damage to the skin layer. So, the platelet starts acting over there. Platelets first started to make a blood clot there. This is done with the help of fibrin. During this clot, there is a temporary interaction created. When the blood vessel layer restores itself, the interaction gets destroyed with time. So, the blood clot loses the ability to stick over that spot. And with time that removes from that area. So, all these things depend upon cell-to-cell interaction.
Proteins Involve In Cell-To-Cell Interaction
Structure Of Occluding
Occluding structure can be divided into nine domains. These nine domains are divided into two groups. One group consists of five domains. These domains are placed in the intracellular format. The other group consists of four domains. These domains are located extracellularly. These domains help to hold the tight junctions hardly. Also, these proteins interact with some other cytoplasmic proteins in the tight junction. Also, sometimes they are being interacted with the receptors for the cell signaling functions. The domains of Occluding are:
- N-terminus domain
- Transmembrane domain 1
- Extracellular loop 1
- Transmembrane domain 2
- Intracellular loop
- Transmembrane domain 3
- Extracellular domain 2
- Transmembrane domain 4
- C-terminus domain
Function Of Occluding
- Occluding is an important factor in the tight junction. It is being used to assemble the tight junction in the tissues.
- Occluding is also important for the stability of the tight junction. Also, these proteins help to create barrier-like structures in the tissue cells.
- Occluding creates morphological stability in the epithelial cells of the muscles.
- Occluding helps to develop less complex tight junctions than other proteins in other cell junctions.
Structure Of Claudin
Claudin is the protein that is involved in the tight junctions again. Along with the Occluding, Claudin is also another important protein there. Claudin has some structural differences.
- N-Terminal: This is one of the ends in the Claudin proteins. This end is in the cytoplasm of the cell. This is the very short end. There are mainly 1 to 10 amino acids present in this end.
- C-Terminal: This is another end in the Claudin protein. This end is quite longer than the other end. There are mainly 20 to 50 amino acid chains present in this region. This end is present inside the tight junction.
- Transmembrane Domain: This is the long chain of amino acids. They cause the cellular membrane of the tight junction.
- First Extracellular Loop: There are two extracellular loops. In between them, this one is larger than the other one. There are nearly 40 to 50 amino acids in this chain. These amino acids are a predictor of the charge of the tight junctions.
- Second Extracellular Loop: This is another extracellular loop. This is short than the first loop. There are mainly 20 amino acids group in this loop.
Function Of Claudin
- Claudin helps to develop the cytoskeleton of any cell by interaction with the cytoplasm of that cell.
- Claudin is only the protein that can participate in cell signaling in tight junctions.
- Claudin is used to interact with the adjacent cells in the tight junctions. The secondary extracellular loop helps with this purpose.
Structure of Connexin
Connexin proteins are made up of four domains. These are the cytoplasmic terminal and cytoplasmic loop. And there are also some extra-cellular loops. The Connexin protein is made up of hemichannels. Six hemichannels help to develop the Connexin. And two hemichannels connect the Connexin with the Gap junctions. The entrance part of the Connexin is in the cytoplasm of the cell. The entrance of the Connexin is like the funnel. This means the entrance of it is quite smaller. So, the big substances can’t able to enter this protein structure.
Function of Connexin
- Connexin proteins help to develop the gap junction in cell interaction.
- Connexin proteins hold the cells in a gap using electrical coupling. The electrical coupling is the essential feature of this protein.
- Connexin protein is like the medium type of protein. This means this protein will not hard enough to make a junction like a tight junction. Also, it will not weak enough that can’t able to hold a junction.
Importance of Cell-to-Cell Interaction
Cell-to-cell interaction is the most important thing in the body. In tissues, the cells are attached. So, there is a need to have a tight bond. So, the tight junction provides the function there. Also, the interactions help to make proper communication with the cells. There is always a need to make communication between the cells. Otherwise, there will be communication problems. In a tissue, some cells are situated in the middle of the tissue. They don’t have extracellular access. If there is a need for any substances, so the cell interactions help them to have that substance from the adjacent cells. this type of communication helps a lot in the human body.
Difference between Cell-to-Cell & Cell-to-Matrix Interaction
|Cell-to-cell interaction is a type of cell communication, where there is communication with the cells along with some other cells. This means, one cell will interact in this case.||Cell-to-matrix interaction is a different type of interaction. Where a cell is being communicated from the extracellular matrix.|
|In cell-to-cell interaction, both communication mediums should be the cells. This process can only be visualized in the cells.||In cell-to-matrix interaction, one medium should be the cell. But another medium might be anything, that might be a foreign element or any residual of any substances. But the second one should not be a cell.|
|There is no need to have any receptor in cell-to-cell interaction. Receptor-like theories are not appropriate in this case.||A receptor is compulsory here. A receptor will be the trigger to start the operation in the cell-to-matrix interaction.|
|The cell-to-cell interaction is used, when a large set of cells are located in the same place. This is being used in the tissues.||The cell-to-matrix interaction is used when the two mediums are placed at a distance. Mainly, the immune system cells perform this type of operation.|
|In cell-to-cell interaction, cell junctions are formed in the connection of the cells.||In cell-to-matrix interaction, the cell adhesions occur mainly to make communication.|
FAQs on Cell-to-Cell Interaction
Question 1: What is cell-to-cell interaction?
Cell-to-cell interaction is a process by which two adjacent cells in the tissue can able to communicate with each other without providing any command to each other. This communication can be done using cell junctions.
Question 2: Do the cell-to-cell interaction & cell signaling the same thing?
No. The cell-to-cell interaction & cell signaling are completely different things. In cell signaling, one cell send one chemical signal to the other cell. And based on that, it performs certain tasks. But in the case of the cell-to-cell interaction, there is no type of chemical interaction is present.
Question 3: What are the cell junctions?
Cell junctions are the bridges that lie in between the cell linings in the tissues. These are the junctions that hold the cell with the remaining part of the tissue.
Question 4: Which type of interaction can able to find in the epithelial cells?
In the epithelial cells, there are stable interactions can be witnessed. As there is no need to move the cells from the tissue. So, their stable interactions can be witnessed.
Question 5: Which type of interaction can able to find in the immune cells?
In the immune cells, there are temporary interactions can be witnessed. As there is a need to move the cells from the tissue. So, their temporary interactions can be witnessed.
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