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C Program to Show Runtime Exceptions

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  • Last Updated : 03 Aug, 2022
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Runtime exceptions occur while the program is running. Here, the compilation process will be successful.  These errors occur due to segmentation faults and when a number is divided by a division operator or modulo division operator.

Types of Runtime Errors:

  1. An invalid memory access 
  2. Dividing by zero. 
  3. Segmentation faults  
  4. Large memory allocation/Large Static Memory Allocation 
  5. Making common errors. 

1. During runtime, an invalid memory access  

An invalid memory access error occurs during runtime when the array’s index is assigned a negative value. 

Note: The output might change every time we run this program because it gives a junk value in return for the invalid location.

C




// C program to demonstrate
// an invalid memory access error
#include <stdio.h>
int a[5];
int main()
{
    int s = a[-11];
    printf("%d", s);
    return 0;
}

Output

32746

2. Dividing by zero

When we are trying to divide any number by zero then we get this type of error called floating-point errors.

C




// C program to demonstrate
// an error occurred by dividing 0
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int a = 5;
    printf("%d", a / 0);
    return 0;
}

Output:

Dividing by Zero Error Output

Error of dividing by zero

3. Segmentation Faults

Let us consider an array of length 5 i.e. array[5], but during runtime, if we try to access 10 elements i.e array[10] then we get segmentation fault errors called runtime errors. Giving only an array length of 5

C




// C program to demonstrate
// an error of segmentation faults
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int GFG[5];
    GFG[10] = 10;
    return 0;
}

But in output trying to access more than 5 i.e if we try to access array[10] during runtime then we get an error 

Output:

Segmentation Fault Error

Segmentation Fault Error

4. Large memory allocation/Large Static Memory Allocation : 

In general, all online judges allow up to 10^8. However, to be on the safe side, use up to 10^7 unless it is required. In the below example we have mentioned more than 10^8 so, it will cause an error due to large memory allocation.

C




// C program to demonstrate
// an error of large memory allocation
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int GFG[10000000000];
    printf("%d", GFG);
    return 0;
}

Output: 

Output of Large Memory Allocation Error

Large Memory Allocation Error

5. Making common errors: 

The below code gives runtime error because we have declared a variable as long int but in scanf we have used %d instead of %ld. So it will give an error.

C




// C program to demonstrate
// a common error
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    long int GFG;
    scanf("%d", &GFG);
    return 0;
}

Output: 

Output of Common Error

Common Error


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