Applications of tree data structure
What is Tree ?
Tree is collection of nodes. A tree is a hierarchical data structure. Tree is a non-linear data structure which contains nodes and edges.
According to the above example image of tree
Nodes : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14
Root : 1
Internal Nodes : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
External nodes : 8 9 10 11 13 14
(Parent , Child) : (1, 2 and 3), (2, 4 and 5), (3, 6 and 7),(4, 8 and 9), (5, 10 and 11) , (6, 13) , (7,14)
Siblings : (2, 3) , (4, 5), (6, 7), (8, 9), (10, 11)
Unlike Array and Linked List, which are linear data structures, tree is hierarchical (or non-linear) data structure.
- One reason to use trees might be because you want to store information that naturally forms a hierarchy. For example, the file system on a computer:
/ <-- root / \ ... home / \ ugrad course / / | \ ... cs101 cs112 cs113
- If we organize keys in form of a tree (with some ordering e.g., BST), we can search for a given key in moderate time (quicker than Linked List and slower than arrays). Self-balancing search trees like AVL and Red-Black trees guarantee an upper bound of O(Logn) for search.
- We can insert/delete keys in moderate time (quicker than Arrays and slower than Unordered Linked Lists). Self-balancing search trees like AVL and Red-Black trees guarantee an upper bound of O(Logn) for insertion/deletion.
- Like Linked Lists and unlike Arrays, Pointer implementation of trees don’t have an upper limit on number of nodes as nodes are linked using pointers.
Other Applications :
- Store hierarchical data, like folder structure, organization structure, XML/HTML data.
- Binary Search Tree is a tree that allows fast search, insert, delete on a sorted data. It also allows finding closest item
- Heap is a tree data structure which is implemented using arrays and used to implement priority queues.
- B-Tree and B+ Tree : They are used to implement indexing in databases.
- Syntax Tree: Scanning, parsing , generation of code and evaluation of arithmetic expressions in Compiler design.
- K-D Tree: A space partitioning tree used to organize points in K dimensional space.
- Trie : Used to implement dictionaries with prefix lookup.
- Suffix Tree : For quick pattern searching in a fixed text.
- Spanning Trees and shortest path trees are used in routers and bridges respectively in computer networks
- As a workflow for compositing digital images for visual effects.
- Decision trees.
- Organization chart of a large organization.
- In XML parser.
- Machine learning algorithm.
- For indexing in database.
- IN server like DNS (Domain Name Server)
- In Computer Graphics.
- To evaluate an expression.
- In chess game to store defense moves of player.
- In java virtual machine.
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