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Ammonium Chloride Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 08 Mar, 2022

A compound that is formed from the atoms of different elements combined in a specific ratio is termed a Chemical compound. These types of atoms are joined by chemical bonds. All compound has a fixed ratio between the elements. These types of elements combine together so strongly that the compound behaves like one substance. It can be in the form of liquid such as water, which is made from the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen sticking together.  This can be in the form of solid such as sodium chloride which is made from the atoms of sodium and chlorine sticking together.

Ammonium Chloride Formula

Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of NH4Cl. Ammonium Chloride is also known as sal ammoniac, the salt of ammonia and hydrogen chloride.

It is a by-product of sodium carbonate and also has both diuretic and expectorant effects. it appears as a crystalline salt, Ammonium Chloride is white In its pure form. This compound is mildly acidic and highly water-soluble. In veterinary medicine, Ammonium chloride is used in the prevention of urinary stones in sheep, goats, and cattle.

Note: When ammonium sulfate solutions react with NaCl, NH4Cl is produced.

When a 5% solution of ammonium chloride is mixed with water then the resulting solution pH value will be ranging from 4.6 to 6.0. It is an acidifying salt that may be found in the body and in the urine. This acid-forming salt also has an expectorant action making it useful for cough relief by irritating the mucous membranes,

Properties of Ammonium Chloride

PropertiesValue
Chemical formulaNH4Cl
Molar mass53.491 g/mol
ColorODOURLESS
Density1.53 g/cm³
Melting point338°C
Boiling point520°C
SolubilityHighly soluble in water

Structure of Ammonium Chloride 

Ammonium Chloride

Preparation of Ammonium Chloride 

Ammonium chloride is prepared by reaction of ammonia (NH3) with hydrogen chloride.

NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

This is also formed as the by-product of the Solvay process. In this process carbon dioxide and ammonia are passed into a cold saturated solution of sodium chloride.

CO2 + 2 NH3 + 2NaCl + H2O → 2 NH4Cl + Na2CO

Chemical Properties

  • At the time of decomposition, Ammonium Chloride produces ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride.

NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl

  • It also reacts with sodium hydroxide to produce ammonia gas.

NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl + H2O

  • To produce sodium chloride and ammonia gas Ammonium chloride also reacts with sodium carbonate .

2 NH4Cl + Na2CO3 → 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O + 2 NH3

Uses of Ammonium Chloride

  1. Ammonium Chloride is used in fertilizers as a nitrogen source and is highly used in the crops of rice and wheat.
  2. It is used in medicine as an expectorant, especially in cough medicine. It is useful to reduce nausea and vomiting. It is also useful in the test to diagnose distal renal tubular acidosis too.
  3. It is used in glue which helps to bond plywood.
  4. In aqueous solutions. It is used in Leclanche cells
  5. It is used in food additives in bread making as a yeast nutrient. Salmiak is a dark sweet in which Ammonium chloride is used to spice up.
  6. Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifier.
  7. Ammonium chloride is used in cooling baths to create low temperatures.
  8. Ammonium chloride is used as buffer solutions along with ammonia.
  9. Ammonium chloride is given to cattle as feed supplements.

Conceptual Questions

Question 1: What is the chemical formula of Ammonium chloride?

Answer: 

Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of NH4Cl . 

Question 2: What are the effects of Ammonium chloride on health?

Answer: 

It is not full risk free as its high dose can lead to higher blood pressure s well as can cause irritation , nausea and headache . It can also cause serious eye discomfort.

Question 3: Where is ammonium chloride found?

Answer: 

It is found in household products like shampoo, hair colour and bleach, body wash, facial cleanser, conditioner, hand wash, dishwash detergent as well as oil and salt. It is important for electrolytes .

Question 4: How ammonium chloride will be prepared?

Answer: 

Ammonium chloride is prepared by reaction of ammonia (NH3) with hydrogen chloride.

NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

This is also formed as the by product of solvay process .In this process carbon dioxide and ammonia are passed into a cold saturated solution of sodium chloride.

CO2 + 2 NH3 + 2 NaCl + H2O → 2 NH4Cl + Na2CO

Question 5: What will happen when ammonium chloride is heated?

Answer: 

When ammonium chloride is heated, It undergoes a decomposition reaction to yield ammonia and gaseous hydrogen chloride as the products. This process is also appear similar to sublimation processes, the change is chemical and not physical.

Question 6: What is the effect of ammonium chloride and bleach mixture?

Answer: 

When we will mix ammonium chloride and bleach it will release chloramine gas and Chloramine gas is toxic in nature then the exposure of chloramine gas causes irritation of eyes, nose, throat and lungs.

Question 7: What is the basic use of ammonia in agriculture?

Answer: 

One of the main use of ammonia is its use in the agricultural industry as a fertilizer. Ammonia is waterless in nature (or sometimes by aqueous solutions or by ionic salts).

It is mixed with agricultural soils to increase nitrogen content in the soil and, also helpful in soil fertility which leads to higher crop yields and also of better crop quality. This compound is used for many important chemicals such as hydrazine and hydrogen cyanide.

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