What is the difference between Heap and Red-Black Tree?
What is Heap?
A Heap is a special Tree-based data structure in which the tree is a complete binary tree. There are two types of heap – Min heap and Max heap.
To learn more about heap, go through the following article: Introduction to Heap
What is a Red-Black Tree?
- The red-Black tree is a self-balancing binary search tree in which each node contains an extra bit for denoting the color of the node, either red or black.
Differences between Heap and Red-Black Tree
Red Black Tree
||You can’t find an arbitrary element in a heap in O(log N).
||1. You can find an arbitrary element in a Red-Black Tree in O(log N).
||Implement using a complete binary tree.
||2. Implement using a self-balancing binary search tree.
||Ordering, parent < children in Min Heap and parent > children in Max Heap.
||3. Ordering, left child < parent < right child.
|| The structure is implicit, the root is at position 0, and children of the root are at 1 and 2, so no overhead per element.
||4. Pointers are used to represent the structure of the tree, so overhead per element.
||Typical use, priority queue, and heap sort.
||5. Typical use, TreeSet, TreeMap, and Hashmap in the Java Collections Library and ordered map in C++ STL.
||Heap does not support efficient search operation
||Red-black tree provides efficient search operations due to its ordered binary search tree data structure.
||Requires less space than red-black tree.
||Requires more space as it stores data of colour.
||Specialized data structure.
||General-purpose data structure.
||Heap has a simpler deletion operation compared to red-black tree since it only involves removing the root node and then fixing the heap property by swapping nodes.
||Red-black tree, on the other hand, requires more complex rotations and color changes to maintain the balance property.
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