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Red Black Tree vs AVL Tree

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In this post, we will compare Red-Black Tree and AVL Tree. 

Red Black Tree

Red Black Tree


  1. Self-Balancing is provided by painting each node with two colors(Red or Black).
  2. When the Tree is modified, a new tree is subsequently rearranged and repainted.
  3. It requires 1 bit of color information for each node in the tree.
  4. Time complexity: O(logn).

Constraints maintained by Red Black Tree:  

  1. Root is always black.
  2. All NULL leaves are black, and both children of a red node are black.
  3. Every simple path from a given node to any of its descendant leaves contains the same number of black 
  4. Path from root to farthest leaf is no more than twice as long as the path from the root to nearest leaf.
  5. Time complexity: O(logn).

AVL(Adelson-Velskii and Landis) Tree


  1. Height difference of the left and right subtree of the node should be less than 2.
  2. Re-balancing is done when the heights of two child subtrees of a node differ by more than one.
  3. Faster retrievals as strictly balanced.


Basis of comparisonRed Black TreesAVL Trees
LookupsRed Black Trees has fewer lookups because they are not strictly balanced.AVL trees provide faster lookups than Red-Black Trees because they are more strictly balanced.
ColourIn this, the color of the node is either Red or Black. In this, there is no color of the node.
Insertion and removalRed Black Trees provide faster insertion and removal operations than AVL trees as fewer rotations are done due to relatively relaxed balancing.AVL trees provide complex insertion and removal operations as more rotations are done due to relatively strict balancing.
StorageRed Black Tree requires only 1 bit of information per node. AVL trees store balance factors or heights with each node thus requiring storage for an integer per node.
SearchingIt does not provide efficient searching.It provides efficient searching.
UsesRed-Black Trees are used in most of the language libraries like map, multimap, multiset in C++, etc.AVL trees are used in databases where faster retrievals are required.
Balance FactorIt does not gave balance factorEach node has a balance factor whose value will be 1,0,-1
BalancingTake less processing for balancing i.e.; maximum two rotation requiredTake more processing for balancing
Last Updated : 10 Nov, 2022
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