Set in Java
The set interface is present in java.util package and extends the Collection interface is an unordered collection of objects in which duplicate values cannot be stored. It is an interface that implements the mathematical set. This interface contains the methods inherited from the Collection interface and adds a feature that restricts the insertion of the duplicate elements. There are two interfaces that extend the set implementation namely SortedSet and NavigableSet.
Union of the two Set[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9] Intersection of the two Set[0, 1, 3, 4] Difference of the two Set[2, 8, 9]
Performing Various Operations on SortedSet
After the introduction of Generics in Java 1.5, it is possible to restrict the type of object that can be stored in the Set. Since Set is an interface, it can be used only with a class that implements this interface. HashSet is one of the widely used classes which implements the Set interface. Now, let’s see how to perform a few frequently used operations on the HashSet. We are going to perform the following operations as follows:
- Adding elements
- Accessing elements
- Removing elements
- Iterating elements
- Iterating through Set
Now let us discuss these operations individually as follows:
Operations 1: Adding Elements
In order to add an element to the Set, we can use the add() method. However, the insertion order is not retained in the Set. Internally, for every element, a hash is generated and the values are stored with respect to the generated hash. the values are compared and sorted in ascending order. We need to keep a note that duplicate elements are not allowed and all the duplicate elements are ignored. And also, Null values are accepted by the Set.
[A, B, C]
Operation 2: Accessing the Elements
After adding the elements, if we wish to access the elements, we can use inbuilt methods like contains().
Set is [A, B, C] Contains D false
Operation 3: Removing the Values
The values can be removed from the Set using the remove() method.
Initial HashSet [A, B, C, D, E] After removing element [A, C, D, E]
Operation 4: Iterating through the Set
There are various ways to iterate through the Set. The most famous one is to use the enhanced for loop.
A, B, C, D, E,
Classes that implement the Set interface in Java Collections can be easily perceived from the image below as follows and are listed as follows:
Class 1: HashSet
HashSet class which is implemented in the collection framework is an inherent implementation of the hash table data structure. The objects that we insert into the HashSet do not guarantee to be inserted in the same order. The objects are inserted based on their hashcode. This class also allows the insertion of NULL elements. Let’s see how to create a set object using this class.
[South Africa, Australia, India] Set after removing Australia:[South Africa, India] Iterating over set: South Africa India
Class 2: EnumSet
EnumSet class which is implemented in the collections framework is one of the specialized implementations of the Set interface for use with the enumeration type. It is a high-performance set implementation, much faster than HashSet. All of the elements in an enum set must come from a single enumeration type that is specified when the set is created either explicitly or implicitly. Let’s see how to create a set object using this class.
Set 1: [CODE, LEARN, CONTRIBUTE, QUIZ]
Class 3: LinkedHashSet
LinkedHashSet class which is implemented in the collections framework is an ordered version of HashSet that maintains a doubly-linked List across all elements. When the iteration order is needed to be maintained this class is used. When iterating through a HashSet the order is unpredictable, while a LinkedHashSet lets us iterate through the elements in the order in which they were inserted. Let’s see how to create a set object using this class.
[India, Australia, South Africa] Set after removing Australia:[India, South Africa] Iterating over set: India South Africa
Class 4: TreeSet
TreeSet class which is implemented in the collections framework and implementation of the SortedSet Interface and SortedSet extends Set Interface. It behaves like a simple set with the exception that it stores elements in a sorted format. TreeSet uses a tree data structure for storage. Objects are stored in sorted, ascending order. But we can iterate in descending order using the method TreeSet.descendingIterator(). Let’s see how to create a set object using this class.
[Australia, India, South Africa] Set after removing Australia:[India, South Africa] Iterating over set: India South Africa