Python program to Convert a Matrix to Sparse Matrix

Given a matrix with most of its elements as 0, we need to convert this matrix into a sparse matrix in Python.

Example:

Input: Matrix:
1 0 0 0
0 2 0 0
0 0 3 0
0 0 0 4
5 0 0 0



Output: Sparse Matrix:
0 0 1
1 1 2
2 2 3
3 3 4
4 0 5

Explanation:
Here the Matrix is represented using a 2D list and the Sparse Matrix is represented in the form Row Column Value

In the Sparse Matrix the first row is 0 1 1 indicates that the value of the Matrix at row 0 and column 1 is 1.

Approach:

  1. Create an empty list which will represent the sparse matrix list.
  2. Iterate through the 2D matrix to find non zero elements.
  3. If an element is non zero, create a temporary empty list.
  4. Append the row value, column value, and the non zero element itself into the temporary list.
  5. Now append the temporary list into the sparse matrix list such that the temporary list acts as a sub-list of the sparse matrix list.
  6. After getting all the non zero elements from the matrix, display the sparse matrix.

The above approach has been used in convertToSparseMatrix() function in the below program:

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# Python program to convert a
# matrix to sparse matrix
  
  
# function display a matrix
def displayMatrix(matrix):
      
    for row in matrix:
        for element in row:
            print(element, end =" ")
        print()
  
# function to convert the matrix 
# into a sparse matrix
def convertToSparseMatrix(matrix):
  
    # creating an empty sparse 
    # matrix list
    sparseMatrix =[]
  
    # searching values greater 
    # than zero
    for i in range(len(matrix)):
        for j in range(len(matrix[0])):
            if matrix[i][j] != 0 :
  
                # creating a temporaray
                # sublist
                temp = []
  
                # appending row value, column 
                # value and element into the 
                # sublist 
                temp.append(i)
                temp.append(j)
                temp.append(matrix[i][j])
  
                # appending the sublist into
                # the sparse matrix list
                sparseMatrix.append(temp)
  
    # displaying the sparse matrix
    print("\nSparse Matrix: "
    displayMatrix(sparseMatrix)                 
  
# Driver's code
# initializing a normal matrix
normalMatrix =[[1, 0, 0, 0], 
               [0, 2, 0, 0], 
               [0, 0, 3, 0], 
               [0, 0, 0, 4], 
               [5, 0, 0, 0]] 
  
# displaying the matrix
displayMatrix(normalMatrix)
  
# converting the matrix to sparse 
# displayMatrix 
convertToSparseMatrix(normalMatrix)       

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Output:

0 1 0 0 
0 0 2 0 
0 3 0 0 
0 0 5 0 
0 0 0 4 

Sparse Matrix: 
0 0 1 
1 1 2 
2 2 3 
3 3 4 
4 0 5 


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