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Parts Of Plants, Diagram And Functions

Last Updated : 05 Jan, 2024
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The part of the plant that developed beneath the soil is referred to as root and the part that grows outside of the soil is known as shoot. The shoot consists of stems, branches, leaves, fruits, and flowers. Plants are made up of six main parts: roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. Each part of the plant plays an important role in its survival and growth.

Plants have a major role on the earth as they produce oxygen that is utilized by other living organisms for respiration. The plants in turn absorb the carbon dioxide that is given out as a by-product during respiration. In this way, plants and animals are ecologically dependent on each other. In this article, we will study in detail the different parts of a plant, root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and seed– their functions and diagrams.

What is a Plant?

A plant is one of the most important living things that develop on the earth and is made up of stems, leaves, roots, and so on. Plants are essential and beneficial to both animals and humans. In one year a growing tree will absorb about 48 pounds of CO2 from the atmosphere and release oxygen in return. They released oxygen which is necessary for the existence of living organisms. If there are no plants there will be no food. Photosynthesis in plants provides all the carbon in proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

A plant is made up of many parts. Plants usually made up of six basic parts are roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. Different parts perform different functionalities. The portion of the plant that developed above the ground level is known as the shoot system whereas the part of the plant which lies underground in the soil is referred to as the root system.

Different Parts of Plant

The plant is composed of the following parts:

  • Roots
  • Stem
  • Flower
  • Leaves
  • Fruits

What is a Root?

The root is the part of the plant that grows in the soil. The primary root emerges from the embryo. Its primary function is to provide plant stability (anchorage) and make other mineral salts from the earth available to the plant for various metabolic processes. There are three types of roots: tap roots, adventitious roots, and lateral roots. Tap roots are developed from the root. It is also called pestle root.

The roots arise from the parts of the plant and not from the rhizomes; the roots are referred to as adventitious roots. Roots are collectively known as the root system. The apical part of the root is surrounded by a root cap, which protects the root apex. The well-developed root of the plant also has the ability to absorb mineral salts. It also affects their roots, which are developed to a large extent by cultivation in herbaceous and hydrophytic plants.

Functions of Root

The following flow chart gives an insight into the functions of the root:


Modifications of Root

Sometimes, the roots perform other functions besides provide anchorage and absorbing water and minerals from the earth. They can store food, provide support and are also used for respiration. The roots are main of two types- Tap root and Adventitious roots. The following flowchart gives a better insight into the modifications of root:


What is a Stem?

Stem is the posterior part that remains above the ground and grows negatively geotropic. Internodes and nodes are found on the stem. Branch, bud, leaf, petiole, flower, and inflorescence on a node are all those parts of the plant that remain above the ground and undergo negative subsoil development. The trees have brown bark and the young and newly developed stems are green. The hardest part of the plant is referred to as the trunk. The trunk is covered with a thick outer covering known as bark.

Modifications of Stem

There are three kinds of modifications seen in stems : Sub-Aerial modification, Underground modification, and Aerial Modification.

Functions of Stem

The following flow chart gives an insight into the functions of the root:


To know more, please refer to the article ‘Stem – Characteristics and Functions‘.

What is a Leaf?

A leaf is an essential and important part of a plant. It mainly performs the work of making food i.e. photosynthesis. The process of excretion also takes place in the leaf. The axillary bud is found in the axil of the leaf. Generally, the leaves of dicot plants are dorsiventral and those of monocot plants are isobilateral. The leaf has three main parts.

  1. Leaf Base: This is where the leaf attaches to the stem.
  2. Petiole: It is the stalk of the leaf which is present between the base of the leaf and the lamina. The leaf is petiolate because of its petiole and when the petiole is absent it is called sessile.
  3. Lamina: It is the front main part of the leaf which varies in size and shape. Here photosynthesis, transpiration, etc. activities take place.

Functions of Leaf

The following is an outline of the functions of leaf:


Modifications of Leaf

Leaf are modified into different structures which help the plant to perform its functions in a better way. In desert, leaves are modified into spines which help in preventing water loss. Leaves also help in reproduction via forming buds as seen in Bryophyllum.

To know more. please refer to the article ‘Leaves: Morphology, Types & Modification‘.

What is a Flower?

A flower is the part of a plant that produces seeds, which eventually become other flowers. They are the reproductive system of a plant. The female portion of the flower is the carpels, while the male portion is the stamens. The majority of flowers are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female components. Others may consist of one of two parts and may be male or female. The flower is made up of four whorls of modified leaves called the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.


Function of Flowers

The following gives an overview of the function of flowers:


To know more, please refer to the article ‘Parts of a Flower and their Functions‘.

What is a Fruit?

After fertilization, the mature ovary turns into a fruit. In other words, the fruit is the developed part of an ovary that is formed as a result of fertilization. The fruit should be formed only from the ovary, but sometimes, parts of the flower like the pistil, etc. also contribute to the formation of the fruit.

Structure of a Fruit

Generally, the pericarp can be divided into three parts.

  1. Exocarp or Epicarp: It is the outer covering of the fruit and is generally the epidermis.
  2. Mesocarp: It is the middle part of the fruit wall which is mostly thick. Vascular handles are found in this. This part develops and parenchyma is found in large quantities in it. Its cells are generally juicy or fleshy; Like Mango! Sometimes this part can also be fibrous, like coconut Coconut)
  3. Endocarp: It is the innermost part of the fruit. It is thick and is of different types.


Function of Fruits

The following are the functions of fruits:

  • Fruit help in protecting the seed
  • It helps in the dispersal of seeds by attracting insects.
  • A fruit protects the immature seeds from animals and extreme climatic conditions.
  • It attracts animals that support dispersing or scattering the seeds to distant places.

To know more, please refer to the article ‘What is a Fruit?

Seed and its Functions

The seed is the fertilized, fully developed ovule. The integument of the ovule forms the seed coat. The embryo is preserved in the seed. This embryo is in the dormant stage of the next generation. The main function of the seed is to protect the embryo. It acts as a food resource for the growing seedling.


To know more, please refer to the article ‘Parts of Seed‘.

Let’s Revise

The following mindmap gives a just of the whole article with an easy layout:


Also read,

FAQs – Parts of Plants

1.How many Parts does a Plant usually have?

Plant is composed of six important parts whcih are:

  1. Root
  2. Stem
  3. Flower
  4. Leaf
  5. Fruit
  6. Seed

2. Which Part of Plant makes Food?

The leaf is responsible for making food via the process of Photosynthesis. It contains chlorophyll, the primary pigment required for making food using sunlight.

3. Which Part of the Plant makes Fruit?

The flower part of the plant is responsible for making the fruit. The fruit is the mature ovary which is the female part of the flower.

4.What is Food for Plants Called?

The food for plants is manufactured by the leaves in the form of glucose. It is a type of carbohydrate.

5. Is a Potato a Root or Stem?

Potato is an example of a modification of stem. It is a stolen and is modified for the storage of food.

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