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Major World Biomes

Last Updated : 12 Mar, 2024
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The major world biomes are Terrestrial or land biomes in which Tundras, Deserts, Grasslands, Forests, Mountains, and Aquatic or Water biomes are Freshwater biomes and Marine biomes. Tropical Rainforests are the richest biomes. The Tundra is the coldest biome. The biome is also known as the major life zone.

In this article, You will get to know about the Major World Biomes and Kinds of Biomes.

Major World Biomes

Here’s a table summarizing the major world biomes, their key characteristics, and typical locations:

Biome Key Characteristics Typical Locations
Tropical Rainforest High biodiversity, dense canopy, high precipitation, warm temperatures Amazon Basin, Congo Basin, Southeast Asia
Desert Low precipitation, extreme temperature variations, sparse vegetation Sahara, Arabian, Mojave, Gobi
Savanna Grasslands with scattered trees, seasonal rainfall, diverse herbivores Sub-Saharan Africa, Australia, South America
Temperate Forest Deciduous and coniferous trees, distinct seasons, moderate precipitation Eastern United States, Europe, East Asia
Boreal Forest (Taiga) Coniferous forests, cold temperatures, short growing season Canada, Russia, Scandinavia
Tundra Permafrost, low temperatures, short summers, minimal vegetation Arctic Circle, Antarctic regions
Mediterranean Hot, dry summers, mild, wet winters, shrubs, and woodland Mediterranean Basin, California, Western Cape
Grassland Dominated by grasses, seasonal drought, fires, large herbivores Great Plains, Steppes of Eurasia, Pampas
Freshwater Lakes, rivers, streams, high biodiversity, freshwater fish and plants Global, varies by region
Marine Saltwater environments, coral reefs, oceanic trenches, diverse marine life Oceans worldwide

What is a Biome?

A biome also known as a major life zone is a large geographical area on Earth that is divided by specific plant and animal life. These regions are defined by factors like climate, soil, temperature, etc. Plants and animals in a biome have adapted to survive in the different conditions. There are many different kinds of biomes all around the world from Tundra to hot deserts.

Biomes can be classified into three types Terrestrial or land biomes and Aquatic biomes in which freshwater and marine biomes come. Terrestrial biomes include grasslands, deserts, and tropical forests. Freshwater biomes include Lakes, rivers, tropical and sub-tropical coastal rivers. Marine biomes Include continental shelves, oceans, coral reefs, kelp forests and salt marshes.

The word “Biome” was introduced by an Ecologist Frederic Edward Clements in the year 1916. It refers to the word biotic community.

Kinds of Biomes

The major kinds of biomes found on Earth are as follows:

  • Tropical Rainforest Biome
  • Taiga Biome
  • Temperature Deciduous Forest Biome
  • Grassland Biome
  • Desert Biome
  • Tundra Biome
  • Marine Biome

Tropical Rainforest Biome

Tropical biomes are hot and humid biomes located near the equator. They receive heavy rainfall throughout the year and they are the most diverse biomes on Earth with a large variety of plants and animals living in their environment.

Some common plants in tropical rainforests include orchids, bromeliads, and trees like mahogany and rubber. Animals that live in the tropical rainforest include monkeys, snakes, jaguars and toucans.

Taiga Biome

Taiga biome are cold, snowy forests mostly found in Siberia, Scandinavia and Canada. The most common trees found there are conifers, pines, spruces and firs. Animals that are mostly found in the taiga biome are bears, wolves, moose and wolverines.

Temperature Deciduous Forest Biome

Temperature Deciduous Forest biome is found in regions with four distinct seasons. The trees in these forests started falling their leaves in the spring season. Some common trees that can be found in temperature deciduous forests are Oak, maple, beech and hickory.

Animals that live in temperature deciduous forests are deer, squirrels, foxes, raccoons and opossums.

Grassland Biome

Grassland biomes are areas that are fully covered with grasses. They can be found in many parts of the world including North America, South America, Africa and Asia.

They can be found in different conditions than others like somewhere they can be hot or cold and wet or dry depending upon climate conditions. Animals that live on grassland include bison, zebras, lions, elephants, giraffes and prairie dogs.

Desert Biome

Deserts are hot and dry regions that receive very little rainfall due to their environment. They are found in many parts of the world including Africa, Australia, the southwestern area of the United States and many other countries.

Plants in deserts have adapted to conserve water that’s why they have small spines and leaves. Cactus is the most common plant found in desserts. Animals that live in deserts include camels, snakes, lizards, scorpions and kangaroos.

Tundra Biome

Tundra are cold and dry regions with short growing seasons . They are located in the northernmost and southernmost latitudes of Earth. The vegetation in tundras are low-lying plants such as mosses, lichens and grasses. Animals that live in tundras include caribou, polar bears , arctic foxes and snowy owls.

Marine Biome

Marine biomes are large areas of saltwater that support a large variety of plants and animal life. They are the world’s largest biome that covers about 71 % of the earth’s surface .There are many types of marine biomes such as oceans , coral reefs , estuaries,kelp forests and salt marshes.

Terrestrial Biomes or Land Biomes

The Terrestrial or Land biomes are divided and characterisedare according to the climatic conditions and the climax vegetation of the region in which they found. is also knownThe climax vegetation is also known as the biological community of plants , animals ,birds and other living organisms .Plants and animals have adapted to survive in this biome.

The major types of Terrestrialbiomes or Land biomes are as follows:

  • Tundra
  • Desert
  • Savana
  • Mountains
  • Grasslands
  • Rain forest
  • Polar Region
  • Tropical Forest
  • Taiga
  • Northern Conifer Forest
  • Mediterranean Scrub Forest
  • Temperature Deciduous Forest

Aquatic Biomes or Water Biomes

The Aquatic or Water Biomes are the largest and widest biomesearth’s on earth because water is the most important element among the biological community the total earth surface is covered by which is nearly 70 to 80 per cent .They are all saltwater and freshwater environment that supports a large variety of plants and animal life.

There are two major types of Aquatic Biomes in the world as ecosystemsfollows :

  • Marine Biomes: Marine biomes are saltwater ecosystems that includes oceans ,coral reefs, kelp forests and salt marshes.
  • Freshwater Biomes: Freshwater biomes of water have low salt concentrations .They are all lakes ,rivers ,streamscommunity or, ponds and wetlands of the world.

Interesting facts about Biomes

Fact Biome
Tropical rainforests are home to over half of the world’s known plant and animal species. Tropical Rainforest
Marine plants, particularly phytoplankton, are responsible for producing more than half of Earth’s oxygen. Oceans
The permanently frozen ground layer in tundras is called permafrost and can reach depths of hundreds of meters. Tundra
Contrary to popular belief, deserts can be extremely cold. Antarctica, the driest continent, is technically a desert. Deserts
Many plants in chaparral biomes, like chamise and manzanita, have adaptations like thick bark and flammable oils that help them survive frequent fires. Chaparral
Grasslands are home to some of the largest land animals on Earth, including elephants, giraffes, and rhinos. Grasslands
Due to the dense canopy cover, less than 2% of sunlight reaches the forest floor in a tropical rainforest. Tropical Rainforest
Animals in temperate forests have adapted to the changing seasons. Some hibernate during winter, while others migrate south for warmer weather. Temperate Deciduous Forest
The soil in taiga biomes stores a significant amount of carbon, estimated to be one-third of the total carbon stored in Earth’s soil. Taiga
The deepest parts of the ocean, known as the abyssal zone, receive no sunlight and are home to unique creatures adapted to the extreme pressure and darkness. Ocean Depths


A biome can be described as a large biological community or an ecosystem where different types of living organisms humans , plants , insects ,animals and birds live in different kinds of climates and envioement.

The types of biomes are dividedbased on on the basis of adaptation, range of temperature ,weather and climatic conditions. There are majorly six kinds biomes are Rainforest,Taiga,Temperature deciduous forest,grasslands ,desert,Tundra ,Marine biomes and Freshwater biomes.

Also Read

What is Biome?Definition,Types,Characterstics ,Examples

Differnce between Ecosystem and Biome

Mediterranean Vegetation

Major World Biomes – FAQs

What are the 3 largest biomes?

There are three major types of biomes deserts , grasslands and forests because each of them has distinct charcterstics that suit different enviomental conditions and climate zones .Deserts have hot and arid climates with little rainfall and low humidity.

Which is the richest of biomes?

Tropical Rainforests are the richest biomes for flora and fauna due to their envioement that supports a large diversity of species .Tropical rainforests are found in areas on and around the equator .

Which biome is the coldest?

The Tundra is the coldest of the biomes .It also receives low amount of preciapitation ,making the tundra similar to a desert.

Which biome has the poorest soil and why?

The Rainforest has poor soil because of the amount in the area .So much rain cause rapid rot that does not allow for adequate time for soil to form.

Which biome in India?

The six major land biomes are rainforests , deserts ,tundras ,grasslands, taiga and tempertaure deciduous forests. Howerver major biomes in India are deciduous forest, desert,sea coast ,tropical rain forest.

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