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Implementing Patricia Trie in Java
  • Last Updated : 19 Jan, 2021

A Patricia Trie or prefix Tree or radix Tree is an ordered structured tree, which takes the applications of usually the data it stores. A node’s position in the tree defines the key with which that node is associated, which makes tries different in comparison to binary search Trees, in which a node stores a key that corresponds only to that node.

Each node has one prefix which is a string while the other one is an empty String.

General Operations of Patricia trie are-

  • Insert
  • Search
  • Delete

Approach:



  1. First, we simply create a class PatriciaTrieNode, in which we declare all the variables of the class.
  2. Now we declare another PatriciaTest, where we build the PatriciaTest constructor
  3. We declare functions like makeEmpty() or isEmpty() to check the Node’s status.
  4. We will declare the function bit, which will help us to store the element in the node.
    • We will first check if it’s length is not equal to max Bits.
    • Then we write the code to get the ith bit of key k from left
  5. Now we will write a function Boolean search which will help to find if the element is there in the  Node.
    • Boolean search will take a number, which will help us search root node’
    • PatriciaTrieNode search Node will search if the given data element is present or not
    • If it is present return yes else no.
  6. PatriciaTrieNode search is a function to search for an element.
    • It will have two elements current and next Node.
    • Next Node will be kept to the left child of the element t whereas the current Node is t.
    • With the help of the while loop, we would check the next Node is greater than the current Node
    • If satisfied, we would check if the current Node is equal to the next ‘Node.’
    • Return next Node.
  7. Now we would create a function insert PatriciaTrieNode
    • Here we would declare current, parent, ‘LastNode’, ‘NewNode’.
    • We would set the parameters like data, left Child, and right Child accordingly.
    • We would also check the condition if we have already entered the same key
    • If we did not enter it already we would store the key at a different variable
    • Here we would set it to data, right child, left child, and so on
    • If the parent matches the left child it is the NewNode or the right child becomes the NewNode
  8. Now we would declare the main class
    • We would declare the scanner
    • We would also create an object for PatriciaTest
    • We would declare a character
    • Now we will declare the switch keyword
    • This switch keyword can be accessed using a character.
    • We can choose either to insert, search, empty, or to check if it is empty
    • We can continue the loop according to the given input which satisfies the while.

Implementation:

Case 1

Patricia Trie
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
10
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
20
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
30
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
10
Key already Present
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
2
Enter element to search
20
Search result : true
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
4
Patricia Trie Cleared
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
n

Case 2

Patricia Trie
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
3
Empty status : true
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
5
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
10
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
1
Enter element to insert
15
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
y
Patricia Trie Operations
1. Insert
2. Search
3. Check Empty
4. Make Empty
Make your choice
2
Enter element to search
10
Search result : true
Do you want to continue (Type y or n)
n

Example

Java




// Java Program to  implement Patrica trie
  
// Imorting input output classes
import java.io.*;
// Importing Scanner class to display menu
// or simply to takke input from user
import java.util.Scanner;
  
// Class 1
// class PatriciaTrieNode is created
// to obtained its elements
class PatriciaTrieNode {
    // Member variables of this class
    // Declaring elements, number and data.
    int number;
    int data;
  
    // Two nodes are considered into action
    // node1 -> left child and
    // node2 -> right child
    PatriciaTrieNode leftChild, rightChild;
}
  
class PraticiaTest {
  
    // Member variable of this class
    // Declaring two elements
    // Maxbits can help us to store elements in the Trie
    // The root helps us to fix a global value.
    private PatriciaTrieNode root;
    private static final int MaxBits = 10;
  
    // Method 1
    // PatriciaTrie where initially
    // the root equals NULL
    public PraticiaTest() { root = null; }
  
    // Method 2 - isEmpty()
    // Method used to check if the function is empty as
    // it returns true or false basing on the condition
    public boolean isEmpty() { return root == null; }
  
    // Method 3 - makeEmpty()
    // Method  used to help in emptying the root
    // of the Patricia Node
    public void makeEmpty() { root = null; }
  
    // Method 4 - bit()
    // Declaring the function bit which performs a search
    // operation in finding the bit which should be matched
    // as input
    private boolean bit(int k, int i)
    {
        // Step 1 : Binary input is first converted to
        // string as in strings its easy to match its
        // corporate values
        String binary = Integer.toString(k, 2);
  
        // Step2: Condition check while input length
        // is not equal to the length of the maxbits
        while (binary.length() != MaxBits)
  
            // Step 3: Keep adding the binary value
            // until it gets the last number
            binary = "0" + binary;
  
        // Step 4: If the binary matches the desired value
        //  needed, true will be returned
        if (binary.charAt(i - 1) == '1')
            return true;
  
        // else we return false
        return false;
    }
  
    // Method 5 - search()
    public boolean search(int k)
    {
        // Taking int num , as the half value of
        // the of entered elements
        int num = (int)(Math.log(k) / Math.log(2));
  
        // Condition check whether number
        // is greater than maxBits
        if (num > MaxBits) {
            // Display message
            // Print number has exceeded the limit
            System.out.println("Exceeded the limit");
  
            // And return false
            return false;
        }
  
        // Now when an element is created for the class
        // named as 'searchNode'
  
        // This searches Node will go to the next
        // search function
        PatriciaTrieNode searchNode = search(root, k);
  
        // Now we will search the data element whether
        // k is present in our node or not.
  
        // If it is present print true
        // else print false
        if (searchNode.data == k)
            return true;
        else
            return false;
    }
  
    // By now, search operation of
    // PatriciaTrieNode class is declared
    private PatriciaTrieNode search(PatriciaTrieNode t,
                                    int k)
    {
  
        // Now these are the currentNode and nextNode
        PatriciaTrieNode currentNode, nextNode;
  
        // Step 1 : Now if the elemenents present in the t
        // mode
        //  are NULL,then NULL will be returned
        if (t == null) {
            return null;
        }
  
        // Step 2: Now, considering the next node value to
        // be the left child of the present variable t
        nextNode = t.leftChild;
  
        // Step 3:  Next we keep the current node value
        // to be "t"
        currentNode = t;
  
        // Condition check
        // Step 4: If the next node bitnumber is greater
        // than the current numbers bitcode
        while (nextNode.number > currentNode.number) {
            // Step 5: Making the current Node as the next
            // node
  
            // It is more like checking each
            // as the next node becomes the current node
            // Each time desired output won't be obtaned
            currentNode = nextNode;
  
            // Step 6: Putting this nextNode in the bitwise
            // operator This method helps us to find whether
            // it is LeftChild or Right Child
            nextNode = (bit(k, nextNode.number))
                           ? nextNode.rightChild
                           : nextNode.leftChild;
        }
        // Step 7: Now we return the next Node..
        return nextNode;
    }
  
    // Method 6 - insert()
    // Inserting the value element inside PatriciaTrieNode
    public void insert(int element)
    {
        // Num is the varaiable where the value entered by
        // the user will be stored. This value will be
        // helpful to calculate the serahc index as well
        int num
            = (int)(Math.log(element) / Math.log(2)) + 1;
  
        // Now taking num greater than maxBits, it can be
        // said
        //  that the PatriciaTrieNode is full
        if (num > MaxBits) {
            // This will print the statement that we are
            // full
  
            // Display message
            System.out.println(
                "We are full, The number is too large");
  
            return;
        }
  
        // Now the root value becomes the value
        // where the element gets inserted
        root = insert(root, element);
    }
  
    // Now defining a function insert of the class
    // PraticiaTrieNode
    private PatriciaTrieNode insert(PatriciaTrieNode t,
                                    int element)
    {
  
        // Here the praticiaNode will have current , parent
        // It will also have lastNode and newNode
        PatriciaTrieNode current = null, parent, lastNode,
                         newNode;
        int i;
  
        // Here t equals null
  
        // Condition check
        // If it equals null simply declare
        // the following attributes
        if (t == null) {
            t = new PatriciaTrieNode();
  
            // Number is initialized to be 0
            t.number = 0;
  
            // Data of the t node should be
            // the element number
            t.data = element;
  
            // where as the child will be t and
            t.leftChild = t;
  
            // Right child of the t will be made empty
            // or be equal to null
            t.rightChild = null;
  
            // Return the data t
            return t;
        }
  
        // Now declaring the lastNode to be search
        lastNode = search(t, element);
  
        // If we declare the last node to be
        // a part of the search function.
  
        // Now  we can compare it with the data
        // already present in the PatriciaTrieNode
        // If we have the key already Present
        if (element == lastNode.data) {
            // Print the display message
            System.out.println("Key already Present");
  
            // Return t
            return t;
        }
  
        // Iterating variable variable from
        // first element to last element
        for (i = 1;
             bit(element, i) == bit(lastNode.data, i); i++)
  
            // Keep current to the left Child
            current = t.leftChild;
  
        // Parent is equal to t
        parent = t;
  
        // Condition check
        // Current number is greater than parent number
        // And if current number is less than i
        while (current.number > parent.number
               && current.number < i) {
            // If parent is current
            parent = current;
  
            // Now we will see whether the new node
            // is more flexible to the rightChild
            // or is it ore available to the left child
            // using scope resolution operator
            current = (bit(element, current.number))
                          ? current.rightChild
                          : current.leftChild;
        }
  
        // Now we are taking this as newnode
        newNode = new PatriciaTrieNode();
  
        // If we take newnode of number as i
        newNode.number = i;
  
        // Now taking data as element
        newNode.data = element;
  
        // Now taking the leftchild as depending onn the
        // condition
        // we fix it either to be current or newNode
        newNode.leftChild
            = bit(element, i) ? current : newNode;
  
        // Now again taking the condition we fix
        // The right child either to be newNode or
        // curentNode
        newNode.rightChild
            = bit(element, i) ? newNode : current;
  
        // If we take current and parent as left child are
        // same We fix them to be newNode
        if (current == parent.leftChild) {
            parent.leftChild = newNode;
        }
        else {
            // else we take the right child to be the
            // newNode
            parent.rightChild = newNode;
        }
        // we return the value to t
        return t;
    }
}
  
// Main Class
public class GFG {
  
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // Scanner class to take input choices from user
        Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
  
        // Declare the object of the PracticiaTest class
        PraticiaTest pt = new PraticiaTest();
  
        // Display message
        System.out.println("Patricia Trie\n");
  
        // Declaring a variable 'ch' of character with help
        // of this character we will be able to make choiced
        char ch;
  
        // Do-while is used for switching operations
        // using switch case
  
        // Do loop includes execution in the body
        // which will execute once atleast as
        // condition is checked at last
        do {
            // Display Messages
            // Heading would be patricia Trie Operations
            System.out.println(
                "\n Patricia Trie Operations\n");
  
            // Menu
            // These are the following options
            // that we would keep in a Patricia Trie
  
            // (1) Inserting the element
            System.out.println("1. Insert");
  
            // (2) earching the element
            System.out.println("2. Search");
  
            // (3) Checking for The Trie to be empty
            System.out.println("3. Check Empty");
  
            // (4) Making it empty
            System.out.println("4. Make Empty");
  
            // Display message
            // Reading the choice of the user
            System.out.println("Make your choice");
  
            // Switch variable
            int choice = sc.nextInt();
  
            // Switch case keyboard enables to decide the
            // choice
            switch (choice) {
                // Case 1 : Insertion
                // We would simply call the insert function
                // And set the data
            case 1:
                System.out.println(
                    "Enter element to insert");
                pt.insert(sc.nextInt());
                break;
  
                // Case 2: Enter the element to search
            case 2:
  
                // If we would find the data we would give
                // necessary output If not we would return
                // false Print and display
                System.out.println(
                    "Enter element to search");
                System.out.println(
                    "Search result:"
                    + pt.search(sc.nextInt()));
                break;
  
                // Case: 3
            case 3:
  
                // This is to check if the Trie is empty
                // Print and display
                System.out.print("Empty status : "
                                 + pt.isEmpty());
                break;
  
                // Case 4  : Empty the patricia Trie
  
            case 4:
  
                // Print and display
                System.out.println("Patricie Trie Cleared");
  
                //  Calling makeEmpty() to empty the Trie
                pt.makeEmpty();
                break;
  
                // Defalut case for invalid entry
            default:
  
                // Print and display
                System.out.println("Wrong entry\n");
                break;
            }
  
            // Now if we wish to continue
            // Then we would press y and continue
            // If not we would simply exit from the blocks
            System.out.println(
                "\n Do you want to continue (Type y or n)\n");
            ch = sc.next().charAt(0);
        }
  
        // Condition in do-while loop
        while (ch == 'Y' || ch == 'y');
    }
}

Output:

Case 1

Case 2

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