Can namespaces be nested in C++?

In C++, namespaces can be nested, and resolution of namespace variables is hierarchical. For example, in the following code, namespace inner is created inside namespace outer, which is inside the global namespace. In the line “int z = x”, x refers to outer::x. If x would not have been in outer then this x would have referred to x in global namespace.

#include <iostream>

int x = 20;
namespace outer {
  int x = 10;         
  namespace inner {
    int z = x; // this x refers to outer::x

int main()
  std::cout<<outer::inner::z; //prints 10
  return 0;

Output of the above program is 10.

On a side node, unlike C++ namespaces, Java packages are not hierarchical.

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