Given a set of lines represented by a 2-dimensional array **arr** consisting of **slope(m)** and **intercept(c)** respectively and **Q** queries such that each query contains a value **x**. The task is to find the maximum value of **y** for each value of **x** from all the given a set of lines.

The given lines are represented by the equation

y = m*x + c.

**Examples:**

Input:arr[][2] ={ {1, 1}, {0, 0}, {-3, 3} }, Q = {-2, 2, 1}

Output:9, 3, 2

For query x = -2, y values from the equations are -1, 0, 9. So the maximum value is 9

Similarly, for x = 2, y values are 3, 0, -3. So the maximum value is 3

And for x = 1, values of y = 2, 0, 0. So the maximum value is 2.

Input:arr[][] ={ {5, 6}, {3, 2}, {7, 3} }, Q = { 1, 2, 30 }

Output:10, 17, 213

**Naive Approach:** The naive approach is to substitute the values of **x** in every line and compute the maximum of all the lines. For each query, it will take **O(N)** time and so the complexity of the solution becomes** O(Q * N)** where **N** is the number of lines and **Q** is the number of queries.

**Efficient approach:** The idea is to use convex hull trick:

- From the given set of lines, the lines which carry no significance (for any value of
**x**they never give the maximal value**y**) can be found and deleted thereby reducing the set. - Now, if the ranges
**(l, r)**can be found where each line gives the maximum value, then each query can be answered using binary search. - Therefore, a sorted vector of lines, with decreasing order of slopes, is created and the lines are inserted in decreasing order of the slopes.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

`// C++ implementation of ` `// the above approach ` ` ` `#include <bits/stdc++.h> ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` ` `struct` `Line { ` ` ` `int` `m, c; ` ` ` `public` `: ` ` ` `// Sort the line in decreasing ` ` ` `// order of their slopes ` ` ` `bool` `operator<(Line l) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `// If slopes aren't equal ` ` ` `if` `(m != l.m) ` ` ` `return` `m > l.m; ` ` ` ` ` `// If the slopes are equal ` ` ` `else` ` ` `return` `c > l.c; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Checks if line L3 or L1 is better than L2 ` ` ` `// Intersection of Line 1 and ` ` ` `// Line 2 has x-coordinate (b1-b2)/(m2-m1) ` ` ` `// Similarly for Line 1 and ` ` ` `// Line 3 has x-coordinate (b1-b3)/(m3-m1) ` ` ` `// Cross multiplication will ` ` ` `// give the below result ` ` ` `bool` `check(Line L1, Line L2, Line L3) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `(L3.c - L1.c) * (L1.m - L2.m) ` ` ` `< (L2.c - L1.c) * (L1.m - L3.m); ` ` ` `} ` `}; ` ` ` `struct` `Convex_HULL_Trick { ` ` ` ` ` `// To store the lines ` ` ` `vector<Line> l; ` ` ` ` ` `// Add the line to the set of lines ` ` ` `void` `add(Line newLine) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` ` ` `int` `n = l.size(); ` ` ` ` ` `// To check if after adding the new line ` ` ` `// whether old lines are ` ` ` `// losing significance or not ` ` ` `while` `(n >= 2 ` ` ` `&& newLine.check(l[n - 2], ` ` ` `l[n - 1], ` ` ` `newLine)) { ` ` ` `n--; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `l.resize(n); ` ` ` ` ` `// Add the present line ` ` ` `l.push_back(newLine); ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Function to return the y coordinate ` ` ` `// of the specified line ` ` ` `// for the given coordinate ` ` ` `int` `value(` `int` `in, ` `int` `x) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `return` `l[in].m * x + l[in].c; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `// Function to Return the maximum value ` ` ` `// of y for the given x coordinate ` ` ` `int` `maxQuery(` `int` `x) ` ` ` `{ ` ` ` `// if there is no lines ` ` ` `if` `(l.empty()) ` ` ` `return` `INT_MAX; ` ` ` ` ` `int` `low = 0, ` ` ` `high = (` `int` `)l.size() - 2; ` ` ` ` ` `// Binary search ` ` ` `while` `(low <= high) { ` ` ` `int` `mid = (low + high) / 2; ` ` ` ` ` `if` `(value(mid, x) ` ` ` `< value(mid + 1, x)) ` ` ` `low = mid + 1; ` ` ` `else` ` ` `high = mid - 1; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `return` `value(low, x); ` ` ` `} ` `}; ` ` ` `// Driver code ` `int` `main() ` `{ ` ` ` `Line lines[] = { { 1, 1 }, ` ` ` `{ 0, 0 }, ` ` ` `{ -3, 3 } }; ` ` ` `int` `Q[] = { -2, 2, 1 }; ` ` ` `int` `n = 3, q = 3; ` ` ` `Convex_HULL_Trick cht; ` ` ` ` ` `// Sort the lines ` ` ` `sort(lines, lines + n); ` ` ` ` ` `// Add the lines ` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < n; i++) ` ` ` `cht.add(lines[i]); ` ` ` ` ` `// For each query in Q ` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 0; i < q; i++) { ` ` ` `int` `x = Q[i]; ` ` ` `cout << cht.maxQuery(x) << endl; ` ` ` `} ` ` ` ` ` `return` `0; ` `} ` |

**Output:**

9 3 2

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