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Difference between SQL and PLSQL

Last Updated : 21 Feb, 2023
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Introduction SQL: Structured Query Language (SQL) is a standard Database language that is used to create, maintain and retrieve the relational database. The advantages of SQL are:

  • SQL could be a high-level language that has a larger degree of abstraction than procedural languages.
  • It enables the systems personnel end-users to deal with several database management systems where it is available.
  • Portability. Such porting could be required when the underlying DBMS needs to be upgraded or changed.
  • SQL specifies what’s needed and not however it ought to be done.

Introduction to PL/SQL: PL/SQL is a block-structured language that enables developers to combine the power of SQL with procedural statements. All the statements of a block are passed to the oracle engine all at once which increases processing speed and decreases the traffic. PL/SQL stands for “Procedural Language extensions to SQL.” PL/SQL is a database-oriented programming language that extends SQL with procedural capabilities. It was developed by Oracle Corporation in the early 90s to boost the capabilities of SQL. PL/SQL adds selective (i.e. if…then…else…) and iterative constructs (ie. loops) to SQL. PL/SQL is most helpful put in writing triggers and keeping procedures. Stored procedures square measure units of procedural code keep during a compiled type inside the info. The advantages of PL/SQL are as below:

  • Block structures: It consists of blocks of code, which can be nested within each other. Each block forms a unit of a task or a logical module. PL/SQL blocks are often kept within the info and reused.
  • Procedural language capability: It consists of procedural language constructs like conditional statements (if-else statements) and loops like (FOR loops).
  • Better performance: PL/SQL engine processes multiple SQL statements at the same time as one block, thereby reducing network traffic.
  • Error handling: PL/SQL handles errors or exceptions effectively throughout the execution of a PL/SQL program. Once an associate degree exception is caught, specific actions can be taken depending upon the type of the exception or it can be displayed to the user with a message.

Comparisons of SQL and PLSQL:

Sr. No. Basis of Comparison SQL PL/SQL
1. Definition It is a database Structured Query Language. It is a database programming language using SQL.
2. Variables Variables are not available in SQL. Variables, constraints, and data types features are available in PL/SQL.
3. Control structures No Supported Control Structures like for loop, if, and other.  Control Structures are available like, for loop, while loop, if, and other.
4. Nature of Orientation It is a Data-oriented language. It is an application-oriented language.
5. Operations Query performs the single operation in SQL. PL/SQL block performs Group of Operation as a single block resulting in reduced network traffic.
6. Declarative/ Procedural Language SQL is a declarative language. PL/SQL is a procedural language.
7. Embed SQL can be embedded in PL/SQL. PL/SQL can’t be embedded in SQL.
8. Interaction with Server It directly interacts with the database server. It does not interact directly with the database server.
9. Exception Handling SQL does not provide error and exception handling. PL/SQL provides error and exception handling.
10. Writes It is used to write queries using DDL (Data Definition Language) and DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements. The code blocks, functions, procedures triggers, and packages can be written using PL/SQL.
11. Processing Speed SQL does not offer a high processing speed for voluminous data. PL/SQL offers a high processing speed for voluminous data.
12. Application You can fetch, alter, add, delete, or manipulate data in a database using SQL.  You can use PL/SQL to develop applications that show information from SQL in a logical manner.

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