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Difference Between Ectomycorrhizae and Endomycorrhizae

Last Updated : 19 Feb, 2023
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Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic relationship between fungi and plant roots that allows both partners to benefit. The term mycorrhiza is derived from the Greek words “mykes” meaning fungus and “rhiza” meaning root. There are two main types of mycorrhiza: ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza. Understanding the differences between ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza is essential for understanding the ecology and evolution of plants and the interactions between plants and fungi.

Difference Between Ectomycorrhiza and Endomycorrhiza

Characteristics                                       

Ectomycorrhiza

Endomycorrhiza

Definition Ectomycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungal hyphae wrap around the plant root and form a mantle, but do not penetrate the root cells. Endomycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungal hyphae penetrate the root cells, but do not form a mantle.
Host Plant Ectomycorrhiza is commonly found in the roots of trees such as pine, spruce, and oak. Endomycorrhiza is commonly found in the roots of crops such as maize, wheat, and soybeans.
Fungal Partner Ectomycorrhiza is formed between fungi from the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota and plant roots. Endomycorrhiza is formed between fungi from the Glomeromycota and plant roots.
Structure The fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhiza form a mantle around the plant root and a Hartig net within the root cortex. The fungal hyphae in endomycorrhiza penetrate the root cells and form arbuscules, vesicles, and coils within the root cells.
Nutrient Exchange In ectomycorrhiza, the fungal partner provides the plant with nutrients such as phosphorous, nitrogen, and sulfur in exchange for photosynthetically produced sugars. In endomycorrhiza, the fungal partner provides the plant with nutrients such as phosphorous and water in exchange for photosynthetically produced sugars.
Importance Ectomycorrhiza is important for the growth and survival of many forest trees and is essential for the cycling of nutrients in forest ecosystems. Endomycorrhiza is important for the growth and survival of many crop plants and is essential for increasing the efficiency of nutrient uptake and reducing the need for fertilizer.

Ectomycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungal hyphae wrap around the plant root and form a mantle, but do not penetrate the root cells. Ectomycorrhiza is commonly found in the roots of trees such as pine, spruce, and oak. The fungal partner in ectomycorrhiza is typically a fungus from the Basidiomycota or Ascomycota. The fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhiza form a mantle around the plant root and a Hartig net within the root cortex. In ectomycorrhiza, the fungal partner provides the plant with nutrients such as phosphorous, nitrogen, and sulfur in exchange for photosynthetically produced sugars. Ectomycorrhiza is important for the growth and survival of many forest trees and is essential for the cycling of nutrients in forest ecosystems.

Endomycorrhiza is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungal hyphae penetrate the root cells,but do not form a mantle. Endomycorrhiza is commonly found in the roots of crops such as maize, wheat, and soybeans. The fungal partner in endomycorrhiza is typically a fungus from the Glomeromycota. The fungal hyphae in endomycorrhiza penetrate the root cells and form arbuscules, vesicles, and coils within the root cells. In endomycorrhiza, the fungal partner provides the plant with nutrients such as phosphorous and water in exchange for photosynthetically produced sugars. Endomycorrhiza is important for the growth and survival of many crop plants and is essential for increasing the efficiency of nutrient uptake and reducing the need for fertilizer.

Conclusion

Ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza are two different types of mycorrhiza that play an important role in the growth and survival of plants. Understanding the differences between ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza is essential for understanding the ecology and evolution of plants and the interactions between plants and fungi. Whether it is the forest trees relying on ectomycorrhiza or the crop plants relying on endomycorrhiza, mycorrhiza is a vital aspect of plant growth and survival and has been important for the evolution of life on Earth.


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