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Convert a Binary Search Tree into a Skewed tree in increasing or decreasing order
  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 19 Jan, 2021

Given a Binary Search Tree and a binary integer K, the task is to convert Binary search tree into a Skewed Tree in increasing order if K = 0 or in decreasing order if K = 1.

Examples: 

Input: K = 0, 
           5
          / \
         3   6
Output:
       3
        \
         5
          \
           6

Input: K = 1,
          2
         / \
        1   3
Output:
     3
      \
       2
        \
         1

Approach: 

  • The key observation in the problem is that the first node of the skewed tree will be the extreme left or extreme right node of the BST for increasing order and decreasing order respectively.
  • For Increasing Order we need to do the Inorder Traversal, as the inorder traversal of a BST provides us the increasing sequence of the node values. Hence, the order of traversal at every node will be: 
    1. Left node: Recurse to its left node if it exists, to get smaller value.
    2. Root node: After the complete traversal of its left node/subtree, connect the previous node of the skewed tree to the root node.
    3. Right node: Recurse to the right node if it exists, for larger values.
  • For Decreasing Order, the order of traversal at every node will be: 
    1. Right node: Recurse to its right node if it exists, to get larger values.
    2. Root node: After the complete traversal of its right node/subtree, connect the previous node of the skewed tree to the root node.
    3. Left node: Recurse to the left node/subtree for smaller values.
  • Similarly, by keeping track of the previous node we can traverse the Binary search tree according to the order needed and form the skewed tree.

Below is the implementation of the above approach: 

C++14

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// C++ implementation to flatten the
// binary search tree into a skewed
// tree in increasing / decreasing order
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Class of the node
struct Node
{
    int val;
    Node *left, *right;
 
    Node(int x)
    {
        val = x;
        left = right = NULL;
    }
};
 
Node *prevNode = NULL;
Node *headNode = NULL;
 
// Function to to flatten the binary
// search tree into a skewed tree in
// increasing / decreasing order
void flattenBTToSkewed(Node *root, int order)
{
     
    // Base Case
    if (!root)
        return;
 
    // Condition to check the order
    // in which the skewed tree to
    // maintained
    if (order)
        flattenBTToSkewed(root->right, order);
    else
        flattenBTToSkewed(root->left, order);
 
    Node *rightNode = root->right;
    Node *leftNode = root->left;
 
    // Condition to check if the root Node
    // of the skewed tree is not defined
    if (!headNode)
    {
        headNode = root;
        root->left = NULL;
        prevNode = root;
    }
    else
    {
        prevNode->right = root;
        root->left = NULL;
        prevNode = root;
    }
 
    // Similarly recurse for the left / right
    // subtree on the basis of the order required
    if (order)
        flattenBTToSkewed(leftNode, order);
    else
        flattenBTToSkewed(rightNode, order);
}
 
// Function to traverse the right
// skewed tree using recursion
void traverseRightSkewed(Node *root)
{
    if (!root)
        return;
         
    cout << root->val << " ";
    traverseRightSkewed(root->right);
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
     
    //    5
    //     / \
    //  3   6
    Node *root =new Node(5);
    root->left = new Node(3);
    root->right = new Node(6);
 
    // Order of the Skewed tree can
    // be defined as follows -
    // For Increasing order - 0
    // For Decreasing order - 1
    int order = 0;
 
    flattenBTToSkewed(root, order);
 
    traverseRightSkewed(headNode);
}
 
// This code is contributed by mohit kumar 29

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Java

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// Java implementation to flatten the
// binary search tree into a skewed
// tree in increasing / decreasing order
import java.io.*;
 
// Class of the node
class Node
{
    int val;
    Node left, right;
    
    // Helper function that allocates a new node
    // with the given data and NULL left and right
    // pointers.
    Node(int item)
    {
        val = item;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
class GFG
{
    public static Node node;
    static Node prevNode = null;
    static Node headNode = null;
   
    // Function to to flatten the binary
    // search tree into a skewed tree in
    // increasing / decreasing order
    static void flattenBTToSkewed(Node root,
                                  int order)
    {
       
        // Base Case
        if(root == null)
        {
            return;
        }
       
        // Condition to check the order
        // in which the skewed tree to
        // maintained
        if(order > 0)
        {
            flattenBTToSkewed(root.right, order);
        }
        else
        {
            flattenBTToSkewed(root.left, order);
        }
        Node rightNode = root.right;
        Node leftNode = root.left;
       
        // Condition to check if the root Node
        // of the skewed tree is not defined
        if(headNode == null)
        {
            headNode = root;
            root.left = null;
            prevNode = root;
        }
        else
        {
            prevNode.right = root;
            root.left = null;
            prevNode = root;
        }
       
        // Similarly recurse for the left / right
        // subtree on the basis of the order required
        if (order > 0)
        {
            flattenBTToSkewed(leftNode, order);
        }
        else
        {
            flattenBTToSkewed(rightNode, order);
        }
    }
   
    // Function to traverse the right
    // skewed tree using recursion
    static void traverseRightSkewed(Node root)
    {
        if(root == null)
        {
            return;
        }
        System.out.print(root.val + " ");
        traverseRightSkewed(root.right);       
    }
   
    // Driver Code
    public static void main (String[] args)
    {
       //    5
       //     / \
       //  3   6
        GFG tree = new GFG();
        tree.node = new Node(5);
        tree.node.left = new Node(3);
        tree.node.right = new Node(6);
       
        // Order of the Skewed tree can
        // be defined as follows -
        // For Increasing order - 0
        // For Decreasing order - 1
        int order = 0;
        flattenBTToSkewed(node, order);
        traverseRightSkewed(headNode);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by avanitrachhadiya2155

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Python3

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# Python3 implementation to flatten
# the binary search tree into a skewed
# tree in increasing / decreasing order
 
# Class of the node
class Node:
     
    # Constructor of node
    def __init__(self, val):
        self.val = val
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
         
prevNode = None
headNode = None
 
# Function to to flatten
# the binary search tree into a skewed
# tree in increasing / decreasing order
def flattenBTToSkewed(root, order):
     
    # Base Case
    if not root:
        return
     
    # Condition to check the order
    # in which the skewed tree to maintained
    if order:
        flattenBTToSkewed(root.right, order)
    else:
        flattenBTToSkewed(root.left, order)
         
    global headNode; global prevNode
    rightNode = root.right
    leftNode = root.left
     
    # Condition to check if the root Node
    # of the skewed tree is not defined
    if not headNode:
        headNode = root
        root.left = None
        prevNode = root
    else:
        prevNode.right = root
        root.left = None
        prevNode = root
     
    # Similarly recurse for the left / right
    # subtree on the basis of the order required
    if order:
        flattenBTToSkewed(leftNode, order)
    else:
        flattenBTToSkewed(rightNode, order)
 
# Function to traverse the right
# skewed tree using recursion
def traverseRightSkewed(root):
    if not root:
        return
    print(root.val, end = " ")
    traverseRightSkewed(root.right)
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
    # 5
    #      / \
    # 3   6
    root = Node(5)
    root.left = Node(3)
    root.right = Node(6)
     
    prevNode = None
    headNode = None
     
    # Order of the Skewed tree can
    # be defined as follows -
    # For Increasing order - 0
    # For Decreasing order - 1
    order = 0
     
    flattenBTToSkewed(root, order)
     
    traverseRightSkewed(headNode)

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C#

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// C# implementation to flatten the
// binary search tree into a skewed
// tree in increasing / decreasing order
using System;
 
// Class of the node
class Node
{
    public int val;
    public Node left, right;
     
    // Helper function that allocates a new
    // node with the given data and NULL
    // left and right pointers.
    public Node(int item)
    {
        val = item;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
 
class GFG{
     
public static Node node;
static Node prevNode = null;
static Node headNode = null;
 
// Function to to flatten the binary
// search tree into a skewed tree in
// increasing / decreasing order
static void flattenBTToSkewed(Node root, int order)
{
     
    // Base Case
    if (root == null)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    // Condition to check the order
    // in which the skewed tree to
    // maintained
    if (order > 0)
    {
        flattenBTToSkewed(root.right, order);
    }
    else
    {
        flattenBTToSkewed(root.left, order);
    }
    Node rightNode = root.right;
    Node leftNode = root.left;
    
    // Condition to check if the root Node
    // of the skewed tree is not defined
    if (headNode == null)
    {
        headNode = root;
        root.left = null;
        prevNode = root;
    }
    else
    {
        prevNode.right = root;
        root.left = null;
        prevNode = root;
    }
    
    // Similarly recurse for the left / right
    // subtree on the basis of the order required
    if (order > 0)
    {
        flattenBTToSkewed(leftNode, order);
    }
    else
    {
        flattenBTToSkewed(rightNode, order);
    }
}
 
// Function to traverse the right
// skewed tree using recursion
static void traverseRightSkewed(Node root)
{
    if (root == null)
    {
        return;
    }
    Console.Write(root.val + " ");
    traverseRightSkewed(root.right);
}
 
// Driver Code
static public void Main()
{
     
    //      5
    //     / \
    //    3   6
    GFG.node = new Node(5);
    GFG.node.left = new Node(3);
    GFG.node.right = new Node(6);
     
    // Order of the Skewed tree can
    // be defined as follows -
    // For Increasing order - 0
    // For Decreasing order - 1
    int order = 0;
     
    flattenBTToSkewed(node, order);
    traverseRightSkewed(headNode);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by rag2127

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Output: 

3 5 6

 

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