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Chlorine Gas Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with chemical and their properties. In this article, we are going to learn about chlorine gas. Chlorine is a diatomic element. As you all know chlorine gas is heavier than the air. In total there are seven diatomic elements which are mentioned below, Hydrogen[H2], Nitrogen[N2], Oxygen[O2], Bromine[B2], Iodine[I2], Chloride[Cl2], fluorine[F2].

Chlorine Gas Formula

Take h2 hydrogen gas that’s also a diatomic element like chlorine. We’d get HCL that is hydrochloric acid and it’s a gas probably, balance this equation though because we have one hydrogen and chlorine on the product side but two hydrogens and chlorine on the reactants side.

Hydrogen gas  + chlorine gas ⇢ hydrochloric acid

H2  + Cl2  ⇢  2HCl

So, put 2 on the product side to make a balanced chemical equation. The key idea here to remember is if someone reads a word equation it says chlorine gas and there are seven major diatomic elements like hydrogen, nitrogen, fluorine, oxygen, iodine chlorine, and bromine so having no fear of ice-cold beer helps people remember these elements. Note: that when chlorine is with another element it doesn’t have to be two it doesn’t have to be diatomic. When people have one chlorine they could have something like ccl4 carbon tetrachloride where you have four chlorines bonded to something or we just saw with the HCl just one atom it’s when it’s by itself.

Physical And Chemical Properties of Chlorine gas

  • Chlorine exhibits a very strong pungent odor that is similar to bleach but is much stronger it’s easy to detect by a sense of smell at very low concentrations by itself.
  • Chlorine is non-explosive and non-flammable but it is a strong oxidizing agent that will support combustion with flammable gases and vapors.
  • If chlorine comes in contact with organic combustible substances such as oils or greases explosions and fires may result.
  • The most common way for chlorine to come in contact with incompatible substances is through spills and releases hazardous conditions that can also result if chlorine comes in contact with any of these substances.
  • Chlorine reacts readily with many organic chemicals often violently.
  • Chlorine reacts with water to form hydrochloric or hypochlorous acid.
  • Chlorine is also incompatible with moisture water and steam forming corrosive acids when mixed at 483 degrees Fahrenheit chlorine will oxidize steel essentially burning it.
  • Chlorine reacts with steel at lower temperatures under certain conditions oxidation could lead to a fire which should be avoided since water cannot be used on chlorine.
  • Chlorine exists as a gas or a liquid.
  • Gaseous chlorine is heavier than air so it will settle into low areas such as basements creek beds and ravines liquid chlorine becomes a gas at minus 29 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure liquid.
  • Chlorine has a clear amber color while chlorine gas will exhibit a faint yellowish color at low concentrations and greenish-yellow to green at high concentrations depending on the humidity.
  • Chlorine gas is usually not visible at concentrations below about 25 parts per million.

Structure of chlorine gas

The structure of chlorine gas can be represented by two methods. Those methods are:

  • Dot structure method

Dot structure of chlorine gas

  • Structural structure method

Structural structure of Chlorine gas 

The only difference between these two methods is that the first method has been denoted by dots in the common valence electrons area and in the second diagram it is denoted by a straight line.

Uses of chlorine gas

  • Quantities of chlorine are used industrially for bleaching wood pulp.
  • Chlorine has wide applications in the industry not only to make papers they are also to use in the preparation of rayons.
  • It is used in sterilizing drinking water.
  • It is used in the preparation of phosgene tear gas and most of the gas. These are very poisonous gas and this could be hazardous also.
  • Chlorine is used in the manufacturing of DDT and BHC which are very good insecticides.
  • It is used in the manufacturing of vinyl chloride which is the main starting material from which we can prepare that is falling chlorine that is PVC.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What are the seven diatomic elements and which of them are heavier than the air?


The seven diatomic elements are hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine, and oxygen. Among all the diatomic elements chlorine is heavier than the air.

Question 2: Why is chlorine gas changed in liquid form? How?


Chlorine gas is pressurized and cooled to change into liquid so that it can be shipped and stored. This is why chlorine gas is changed in liquid form.

Question 3: How can we distinguish chlorine gas at different concentrations?


Chlorine gas will exhibit a faint yellowish color at low concentrations and greenish-yellow to green at high concentrations depending on the humidity.

Question 4: What happens when you take to breathe in chlorine gas?


Breathing in the presence of a high level of chlorine gas causes fluid build-up in the lungs. It may lead to dead.

Question 5: Mention any two uses of chlorine gas in industry.


The two industrial uses of chlorine are,

  1. It is used to make rayons.
  2. They are used for bleaching purposes.

Question 6: What type of poisonous gases and insecticides are prepared by using chlorine gas? What reacts with chlorine.


Chlorine gas is used to prepare insecticides like DDT AND BHC. It also helps to prepare some poisonous gases like tear gas and many more. Many common substances like acetylene, ether, turpentine, ammonia, hydrogen, etc react with chlorine.

Question 7: What sterilizing drinking water will chlorine do?


When the drinking water is sterilized by chlorine gas it purifies the water and kills germs that are harmful to our health. It may lead to severe problems in the human body.

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Last Updated : 22 Mar, 2022
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