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Spring Boot | How to consume JSON messages using Apache Kafka

Last Updated : 11 Mar, 2024
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Apache Kafka is a stream processing system that lets you send messages between processes, applications, and servers. In this article, we will see how to publish JSON messages on the console of a Spring boot application using Apache Kafka.

In order to learn how to create a Spring Boot project, refer to this article.

Working Steps 

Step 1: Go to Spring initializer and create a starter project with the following dependency: 
Spring for Apache Kafka

Step 2: Open the project in an IDE and sync the dependencies. In this article, we would be creating a student model where we would be posting the student details. Therefore, create a model class Student. Add data members and create constructor and override the toString method to see the messages in JSON format. The following is the implementation of the student class:

Student Model

// Java program to implement a
// student class
// Creating a student class
public class Student {
    // Data members of the class
    int id;
    String firstName;
    String lastName;
    // Constructor of the student
    // Class
    public Student()
    // Parameterized constructor of
    // the student class
    public Student(int id, String firstName,
                   String lastName)
    { = id;
        this.firstName = firstName;
        this.lastName = lastName;
    public String toString()
        return "Student{"
            + "id = " + id
            + ", firstName = '" + firstName + "'"
            + ", lastName = '" + lastName + "'"
            + "}";

Step 3: Create a new class Config and add annotations @Configuration and @EnableKafka. Now create beans ConsumerFactory and ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory with Student class object.

Config clas

public class Config {
    // Function to establish a connection
    // between Spring application
    // and Kafka server
    public ConsumerFactory<String, Student>
        // HashMap to store the configurations
        Map<String, Object> map
            = new HashMap<>();
        // put the host IP in the map
        // put the group ID of consumer in the map
        // return message in JSON formate
        return new DefaultKafkaConsumerFactory<>(
            map, new StringDeserializer(),
            new JsonDeserializer<>(Student.class));
    public ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory<String,
            = new ConcurrentKafkaListenerContainerFactory<>();
        return factory;


Step 4: Create a class KafkaService with @Service annotation. This class will contain the listener method to publish the message on the console. 

KafkaService Class

public class KafkaService {
    // Annotation required to listen
    // the message from Kafka server
    @KafkaListener(topics = "JsonTopic",
                   groupId = "id", containerFactory
                                   = "studentListner")
    public void
    publish(Student student)
        System.out.println("New Entry: "
                           + student);

Step 5: Start zookeeper and Kafka server. Now we need to create a new topic with the name JsonTopic. To do so, open a new command prompt window and change directory to the Kafka directory.

Step 6: Now create a new topic using the command given below: 

bin/ –create –zookeeper localhost:2181 –replication-factor 1 –partitions 1 –topic topic_name // for mac and linux
.\bin\windows\Kafka-topics.bat –create –zookeeper localhost:2181 –replication-factor 1 –partitions 1 –topic topic_name // for windows 

Step 7: Now to run Kafka producer console, use the command below: 

bin/ –broker-list localhost:9092 –topic Kafka_Example // for mac and linux
.\bin\windows\Kafka-console-producer.bat –broker-list localhost:9092 –topic Kafka_Example // for windows 

Step 8: Run the application and and type message on Kafka producer and press enter.

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