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Remove all special characters from a singly Linked List

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 20 May, 2021

Given a singly linked list where each node represents a character including special characters, the task is to remove all the occurrences of special characters from the linked list so that only valid characters are present in the linked list.

Examples:  

Input: List = ( -> G -> E -> E -> * -> K -> S -> * -> NULL 
Output: G -> E -> E -> K -> S -> NULL

Input: A -> B -> C -> * -> @ -> NULL 
Output: A -> B -> C -> NULL  

Approach: Traverse the linked list. If the current node’s data is a special character, then make the next of the previous node point to the next of the current node. Do this for every node with a special character and finally print the updated list.
Below is the implementation of the above approach:  



C++




// C++ implementation of the approach
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
// Structure for the node
// of the linked list
struct node {
    char data;
    node* next;
};
 
// Utility function to add a new
// node to the linked list
node* add(char data)
{
    node* newnode = new node;
 
    // Assign the data to the data part
    // and assign NULL to the address part
    newnode->data = data;
    newnode->next = NULL;
    return newnode;
}
 
// Function to print the linked list
void print(node* head)
{
    while (head != NULL) {
        cout << head->data << " -> ";
        head = head->next;
    }
    cout << "NULL";
}
 
// Function that returns true if
// ch is a special character
bool isSpecialChar(char ch)
{
 
    // If lower-case character
    if (ch >= 'a' && ch <= 'z')
        return false;
 
    // If upper-case character
    if (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'Z')
        return false;
 
    // If digit
    if (ch >= '0' && ch <= '9')
        return false;
 
    // ch is a special character
    return true;
}
 
// Function to remove the special
// characters from the linked list
node* removeFromLL(node* head)
{
 
    // Declare two variables curr and
    // prev both pointing to head
    node *curr = head, *prev = head;
 
    // The following loop removes special
    // characters from the head of the linked list
    // In case the special character is present at
    // the head of the linked list, make head point
    // to the next valid character
    while (curr != NULL && isSpecialChar(curr->data)) {
        node* temp = curr;
        head = curr->next;
        curr = curr->next;
        delete temp;
    }
 
    // Make prev point to head
    prev = head;
 
    // Repeat the process for
    // the entire Linked list
    while (curr != NULL) {
 
        // Repeat the process for all the elements
        // of linked list, in case a special character
        // is encountered then make the previous valid
        // character point to the next valid character
        // and remove the current node from the linked list
        while (curr != NULL && isSpecialChar(curr->data)) {
            node* temp = curr;
            prev->next = curr->next;
            curr = curr->next;
            delete temp;
        }
 
        // If the end is reached
        if (curr == NULL)
            break;
        prev = curr;
        curr = curr->next;
    }
    return head;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
 
    // Create the linked list
    node* head = NULL;
    head = add('(');
    head->next = add('G');
    head->next->next = add('E');
    head->next->next->next = add('E');
    head->next->next->next->next = add('*');
    head->next->next->next->next->next = add('K');
    head->next->next->next->next->next->next = add('S');
    head->next->next->next->next->next->next->next = add('*');
 
    // Remove the special characters
    // from the linked list
    head = removeFromLL(head);
 
    // Print the updated list
    print(head);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java implementation of the approach
class GFG
{
 
// Structure for the node
// of the linked list
static class node
{
    char data;
    node next;
};
 
// Utility function to add a new
// node to the linked list
static node add(char data)
{
    node newnode = new node();
 
    // Assign the data to the data part
    // and assign null to the address part
    newnode.data = data;
    newnode.next = null;
    return newnode;
}
 
// Function to print the linked list
static void print(node head)
{
    while (head != null)
    {
        System.out.print(head.data + " -> ");
        head = head.next;
    }
    System.out.print("null");
}
 
// Function that returns true if
// ch is a special character
static boolean isSpecialChar(char ch)
{
 
    // If lower-case character
    if (ch >= 'a' && ch <= 'z')
        return false;
 
    // If upper-case character
    if (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'Z')
        return false;
 
    // If digit
    if (ch >= '0' && ch <= '9')
        return false;
 
    // ch is a special character
    return true;
}
 
// Function to remove the special
// characters from the linked list
static node removeFromLL(node head)
{
 
    // Declare two variables curr and
    // prev both pointing to head
    node curr = head; node prev = head;
 
    // The following loop removes special
    // characters from the head of the linked list
    // In case the special character is present at
    // the head of the linked list, make head point
    // to the next valid character
    while (curr != null &&
           isSpecialChar(curr.data))
    {
        node temp = curr;
        head = curr.next;
        curr = curr.next;
        temp = null;
    }
 
    // Make prev point to head
    prev = head;
 
    // Repeat the process for
    // the entire Linked list
    while (curr != null)
    {
 
        // Repeat the process for all the elements
        // of linked list, in case a special character
        // is encountered then make the previous valid
        // character point to the next valid character
        // and remove the current node from the linked list
        while (curr != null &&
               isSpecialChar(curr.data))
        {
            node temp = curr;
            prev.next = curr.next;
            curr = curr.next;
            temp = null;
        }
 
        // If the end is reached
        if (curr == null)
            break;
        prev = curr;
        curr = curr.next;
    }
    return head;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    // Create the linked list
    node head = null;
    head = add('(');
    head.next = add('G');
    head.next.next = add('E');
    head.next.next.next = add('E');
    head.next.next.next.next = add('*');
    head.next.next.next.next.next = add('K');
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('S');
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('*');
 
    // Remove the special characters
    // from the linked list
    head = removeFromLL(head);
 
    // Print the updated list
    print(head);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

Python3




# Python3 implementation of the approach
import math
 
# Structure for the node
# of the linked list
class Node:
    def __init__(self, data):
        self.data = data
        self.next = None
 
# Utility function to add a new
# node to the linked list
def add(data):
    newnode = Node(data)
 
    # Assign the data to the data part
    # and assign None to the address part
    newnode.data = data
    newnode.next = None
    return newnode
 
# Function to print the linked list
def printlist(head):
    while (head != None) :
        print(head.data, end = " -> ")
        head = head.next
     
    print("None")
 
# Function that returns true if
# ch is a special character
def isSpecialChar(ch):
 
    # If lower-case character
    if (ch >= 'a' and ch <= 'z'):
        return False
 
    # If upper-case character
    if (ch >= 'A' and ch <= 'Z'):
        return False
 
    # If digit
    if (ch >= '0' and ch <= '9'):
        return False
 
    # ch is a special character
    return True
 
# Function to remove the special
# characters from the linked list
def removeFromLL(head):
 
    # Declare two variables curr and
    # prev both pointing to head
    curr = head
    prev = head
 
    # The following loop removes special
    # characters from the head of the linked list
    # In case the special character is present at
    # the head of the linked list, make head point
    # to the next valid character
    while (curr != None and
           isSpecialChar(curr.data)):
        temp = curr
        head = curr.next
        curr = curr.next
        temp = None
     
    # Make prev point to head
    prev = head
 
    # Repeat the process for
    # the entire Linked list
    while (curr != None):
 
        # Repeat the process for all the elements
        # of linked list, in case a special character
        # is encountered then make the previous valid
        # character point to the next valid character
        # and remove the current node from the linked list
        while (curr != None and
               isSpecialChar(curr.data)):
            temp = curr
            prev.next = curr.next
            curr = curr.next
            temp = None
         
        # If the end is reached
        if (curr == None):
            break
        prev = curr
        curr = curr.next
     
    return head
 
# Driver code
if __name__=='__main__':
 
    # Create the linked list
    head = None
    head = add('(')
    head.next = add('G')
    head.next.next = add('E')
    head.next.next.next = add('E')
    head.next.next.next.next = add('*')
    head.next.next.next.next.next = add('K')
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('S')
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('*')
 
    # Remove the special characters
    # from the linked list
    head = removeFromLL(head)
 
    # Print the updated list
    printlist(head)
 
# This code is contributed by Srathore

C#




// C# implementation of the approach
using System;
     
class GFG
{
 
// Structure for the node
// of the linked list
class node
{
    public char data;
    public node next;
};
 
// Utility function to add a new
// node to the linked list
static node add(char data)
{
    node newnode = new node();
 
    // Assign the data to the data part
    // and assign null to the address part
    newnode.data = data;
    newnode.next = null;
    return newnode;
}
 
// Function to print the linked list
static void print(node head)
{
    while (head != null)
    {
        Console.Write(head.data + " -> ");
        head = head.next;
    }
    Console.Write("null");
}
 
// Function that returns true if
// ch is a special character
static Boolean isSpecialChar(char ch)
{
 
    // If lower-case character
    if (ch >= 'a' && ch <= 'z')
        return false;
 
    // If upper-case character
    if (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'Z')
        return false;
 
    // If digit
    if (ch >= '0' && ch <= '9')
        return false;
 
    // ch is a special character
    return true;
}
 
// Function to remove the special
// characters from the linked list
static node removeFromLL(node head)
{
 
    // Declare two variables curr and
    // prev both pointing to head
    node curr = head; node prev = head;
 
    // The following loop removes special
    // characters from the head of the linked list
    // In case the special character is present at
    // the head of the linked list, make head point
    // to the next valid character
    while (curr != null &&
           isSpecialChar(curr.data))
    {
        node temp = curr;
        head = curr.next;
        curr = curr.next;
        temp = null;
    }
 
    // Make prev point to head
    prev = head;
 
    // Repeat the process for
    // the entire Linked list
    while (curr != null)
    {
 
        // Repeat the process for all the elements
        // of linked list, in case a special character
        // is encountered then make the previous valid
        // character point to the next valid character
        // and remove the current node from the linked list
        while (curr != null &&
               isSpecialChar(curr.data))
        {
            node temp = curr;
            prev.next = curr.next;
            curr = curr.next;
            temp = null;
        }
 
        // If the end is reached
        if (curr == null)
            break;
        prev = curr;
        curr = curr.next;
    }
    return head;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
    // Create the linked list
    node head = null;
    head = add('(');
    head.next = add('G');
    head.next.next = add('E');
    head.next.next.next = add('E');
    head.next.next.next.next = add('*');
    head.next.next.next.next.next = add('K');
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('S');
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('*');
 
    // Remove the special characters
    // from the linked list
    head = removeFromLL(head);
 
    // Print the updated list
    print(head);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

Javascript




<script>
// javascript implementation of the approach    // Structure for the node
    // of the linked list
class node {
    constructor() {
        this.data = '';
        this.next = null;
    }
}
 
    // Utility function to add a new
    // node to the linked list
    function add( data) {
        var newnode = new node();
 
        // Assign the data to the data part
        // and assign null to the address part
        newnode.data = data;
        newnode.next = null;
        return newnode;
    }
 
    // Function to prvar the linked list
    function print( head) {
        while (head != null) {
            document.write(head.data + " -> ");
            head = head.next;
        }
        document.write("null");
    }
 
    // Function that returns true if
    // ch is a special character
    function isSpecialChar( ch) {
 
        // If lower-case character
        if (ch >= 'a' && ch <= 'z')
            return false;
 
        // If upper-case character
        if (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'Z')
            return false;
 
        // If digit
        if (ch >= '0' && ch <= '9')
            return false;
 
        // ch is a special character
        return true;
    }
 
    // Function to remove the special
    // characters from the linked list
    function removeFromLL( head) {
 
        // Declare two variables curr and
        // prev both pointing to head
        var curr = head;
        var prev = head;
 
        // The following loop removes special
        // characters from the head of the linked list
        // In case the special character is present at
        // the head of the linked list, make head point
        // to the next valid character
        while (curr != null && isSpecialChar(curr.data)) {
            var temp = curr;
            head = curr.next;
            curr = curr.next;
            temp = null;
        }
 
        // Make prev povar to head
        prev = head;
 
        // Repeat the process for
        // the entire Linked list
        while (curr != null) {
 
            // Repeat the process for all the elements
            // of linked list, in case a special character
            // is encountered then make the previous valid
            // character povar to the next valid character
            // and remove the current node from the linked list
            while (curr != null && isSpecialChar(curr.data)) {
                var temp = curr;
                prev.next = curr.next;
                curr = curr.next;
                temp = null;
            }
 
            // If the end is reached
            if (curr == null)
                break;
            prev = curr;
            curr = curr.next;
        }
        return head;
    }
 
    // Driver code
     
        // Create the linked list
        var head = null;
        head = add('(');
        head.next = add('G');
        head.next.next = add('E');
        head.next.next.next = add('E');
        head.next.next.next.next = add('*');
        head.next.next.next.next.next = add('K');
        head.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('S');
        head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = add('*');
 
        // Remove the special characters
        // from the linked list
        head = removeFromLL(head);
 
        // Prvar the updated list
        print(head);
 
// This code contributed by gauravrajput1
</script>
Output: 
G -> E -> E -> K -> S -> NULL

 

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