# Modify a string by circularly shifting each character to the right by respective frequencies

Given a string S consisting of lowercase English alphabets, the task is to right shift each character of the given string S circularly by its frequency.

Circular shifting of characters refers to shifting character ‘z’ to ‘a’, as its next character.

Examples:

Input: S = “geeksforgeeks”
Output: iiimugpsiiimu
Explanation:
Following changes are made on the string S:

1. Frequency of ‘g’ is 2. Therefore, shifting the character ‘g’ by 2 becomes ‘i’.
2. Frequency of ‘e’ is 4. Therefore, shifting the character ‘e’ by 4 becomes ‘i’.
3. Frequency of ‘k’ is 2. Therefore, shifting the character ‘k’ by 2 becomes ‘m’.
4. Frequency of ‘s’ is 2. Therefore, shifting the character ‘s’ by 2 becomes ‘u’.
5. Frequency of ‘f’ is 1. Therefore, shifting the character ‘f’ by 1 becomes ‘g’.
6. Frequency of ‘o’ is 1. Therefore, shifting the character ‘o’ by 1 becomes ‘p’.
7. Frequency of ‘r’ is 1. Therefore, shifting the character ‘r’ by 1 becomes ‘s’.

After the above shifting of characters, the string modifies to “iiimugpsiiimu”.

Output: ddddded

Approach: The idea to solve this problem is to traverse the string and find the frequency of occurrence of each character in the string and then increment each of the characters by its frequency. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

• Initialize an array, say frequency[] that stores the occurrences of each character in the string S.
• Traverse the given string S and perform the following steps:
• Find the frequency of the current character S[i].
• Increment the current character by its frequency and update the value of S[i] to its updated character.
• After completing the above steps, print the string S as the resultant modified string.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

 `// C++ program for the above approach`   `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `// Function to replace the characters` `// by its frequency of character in it` `void` `addFrequencyToCharacter(string S)` `{` `    ``// Stores frequencies of characters` `    ``// in the string S` `    ``int` `frequency[26] = { 0 };`   `    ``int` `N = S.length();`   `    ``// Traverse the string S` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < N; i++) {`   `        ``// Increment the frequency of` `        ``// each character by 1` `        ``frequency[S[i] - ``'a'``] += 1;` `    ``}`   `    ``// Traverse the string S` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < N; i++) {`   `        ``// Find the frequency of` `        ``// the current character` `        ``int` `add = frequency[S[i] - ``'a'``] % 26;`   `        ``// Update the character` `        ``if` `(``int``(S[i]) + add` `            ``<= ``int``(``'z'``))` `            ``S[i] = ``char``(``int``(S[i])` `                        ``+ add);`   `        ``else` `{` `            ``add = (``int``(S[i]) + add)` `                  ``- (``int``(``'z'``));` `            ``S[i] = ``char``(``int``(``'a'``)` `                        ``+ add - 1);` `        ``}` `    ``}`   `    ``// Print the resultant string` `    ``cout << S;` `}`   `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``string S = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;` `    ``addFrequencyToCharacter(S);`   `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `// java program for the above approach` `import` `java.io.*;` `import` `java.lang.*;` `import` `java.util.*;`   `public` `class` `GFG {`   `    ``// Function to replace the characters` `    ``// by its frequency of character in it` `    ``static` `void` `addFrequencyToCharacter(String Str)` `    ``{` `        ``// Stores frequencies of characters` `        ``// in the string S` `        ``int` `frequency[] = ``new` `int``[``26``];`   `        ``int` `N = Str.length();` `        ``char` `S[] = Str.toCharArray();`   `        ``// Traverse the string S` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < N; i++) {`   `            ``// Increment the frequency of` `            ``// each character by 1` `            ``frequency[S[i] - ``'a'``] += ``1``;` `        ``}`   `        ``// Traverse the string S` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < N; i++) {`   `            ``// Find the frequency of` `            ``// the current character` `            ``int` `add = frequency[S[i] - ``'a'``] % ``26``;`   `            ``// Update the character` `            ``if` `((``int``)(S[i]) + add <= (``int``)(``'z'``))` `                ``S[i] = (``char``)((``int``)(S[i]) + add);`   `            ``else` `{` `                ``add = ((``int``)(S[i]) + add) - ((``int``)(``'z'``));` `                ``S[i] = (``char``)((``int``)(``'a'``) + add - ``1``);` `            ``}` `        ``}`   `        ``// Print the resultant string` `        ``System.out.println(``new` `String(S));` `    ``}`   `    ``// Driver Code` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `    ``{` `        ``String S = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;` `        ``addFrequencyToCharacter(S);` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Kingash.`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program for the above approach`   `# Function to replace the characters` `# by its frequency of character in it` `def` `addFrequencyToCharacter(S):`   `    ``# Stores frequencies of characters` `    ``# in the string S` `    ``frequency ``=` `[``0` `for` `i ``in` `range``(``26``)]`   `    ``N ``=` `len``(S)` `    `  `    ``S ``=` `list``(S)` `    ``# Traverse the string S` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(N):`   `        ``# Increment the frequency of` `        ``# each character by 1` `        ``frequency[``ord``(S[i]) ``-` `ord``(``'a'``)] ``+``=` `1` `    `  `    ``# Traverse the string S` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(N):`   `        ``# Find the frequency of` `        ``# the current character` `        ``add ``=` `frequency[``ord``(S[i]) ``-` `ord``(``'a'``)] ``%` `26`   `        ``# Update the character` `        ``if` `ord``(S[i]) ``+` `add <``=` `ord``(``'z'``):` `            ``S[i] ``=` `chr``(``ord``(S[i]) ``+` `add)`   `        ``else``:` `            ``add ``=` `ord``(S[i]) ``+` `add ``-` `ord``(``'z'``)` `            ``S[i] ``=` `chr``(``ord``(``'a'``) ``+` `add ``-` `1``)` `    `  `    ``# Print the resultant string` `    ``s ``=` `""` `    ``print``(s.join(S))`   `# Driver Code` `if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``:` `    `  `    ``S ``=` `"geeksforgeeks"` `    `  `    ``addFrequencyToCharacter(S)` `    `  `# This code is contributed by jana_sayantan`

## C#

 `// C# program for the above approach` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG{`   `// Function to replace the characters` `// by its frequency of character in it` `static` `void` `addFrequencyToCharacter(``string` `Str)` `{` `    `  `    ``// Stores frequencies of characters` `    ``// in the string S` `    ``int``[] frequency = ``new` `int``[26];`   `    ``int` `N = Str.Length;` `    ``char``[] S = Str.ToCharArray();`   `    ``// Traverse the string S` `    ``for``(``int` `i = 0; i < N; i++) ` `    ``{` `        `  `        ``// Increment the frequency of` `        ``// each character by 1` `        ``frequency[S[i] - ``'a'``] += 1;` `    ``}`   `    ``// Traverse the string S` `    ``for``(``int` `i = 0; i < N; i++) ` `    ``{` `        `  `        ``// Find the frequency of` `        ``// the current character` `        ``int` `add = frequency[S[i] - ``'a'``] % 26;`   `        ``// Update the character` `        ``if` `((``int``)(S[i]) + add <= (``int``)(``'z'``))` `            ``S[i] = (``char``)((``int``)(S[i]) + add);`   `        ``else` `        ``{` `            ``add = ((``int``)(S[i]) + add) - ((``int``)(``'z'``));` `            ``S[i] = (``char``)((``int``)(``'a'``) + add - 1);` `        ``}` `    ``}`   `    ``// Print the resultant string` `    ``Console.Write(``new` `string``(S));` `}`   `// Driver Code` `public` `static` `void` `Main(``string``[] args)` `{` `    ``string` `S = ``"geeksforgeeks"``;` `    ``addFrequencyToCharacter(S);` `}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by ukasp`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

`iiimugpsiiimu`

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(26)

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