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Java Program to Implement of Gabow Scaling Algorithm

Last Updated : 15 Jul, 2021
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Gabow’s Algorithm is a scaling algorithm that aims in solving a problem by initially considering only the highest order bit of each relevant input value (such as an edge weight). Then it refines the initial solution by looking at the two highest-order bits. It progressively looks at more and more high-order bits, refining the solution in each iteration, until it has examined all bits and computed the correct solution.

Basically, Gabow’s scaling algorithm is a scaling algorithm that solves a problem by initially considering only the highest order bit of each input value as an edge weight, then it refines the initial solution by looking at two highest-order bits and then refines the solution iteratively until it has visited all bits(in the graph) and computes the correct solution


  1. In method getSCComponents() or name it as per convenience
    • Initially, we declared a graph by using lists in java collections and
    • Then we find strongly connected components by applying dfs() method
  2. In the above method, we implemented a depth-first search approach to consider each and every bit in the graph considering preorder and recount.
  3. In the main method, we take no of vertices and no of edges and add them to an array list, and we print the getSCComponents() method to print out strongly connected components for the given values of the graph.
  4. Print and display the output representing no strongly connected components in the graph


  1. The weight of the minimum weight path from v0 to v using just the most significant bit of the weight is an approximation for the weight of the minimum weight path from v0 to v.
  2. Then, Incrementally introduce additional bits of the weight to refine our approximation of the minimum weight paths.
  3. At each iteration, for some edge (u, v) we define the difference in approximate distances u.dist − v.dist to be the potential across (u, v).
  4. We define the cost of an edge to be its refined weight at some iteration plus the potential across it:
    • li(u, v) = wi(u, v) + u.dist − v.dist.
  5. Since the sum of costs along with path telescopes, these costs preserve the minimum weight paths in the graph.
  6. We guarantee that the cost of an edge is always non-negative.
  7. We can repeatedly find minimum weight paths on graphs of cost value.



// Java Program to Implement Gabow Scaling Algorithm
// Importing input output classes
import java.util.*;
// Main Class
// Implementation of Gabow Scaling Algorithm
public class GFG {
    // Declaring variables
    // 1. Number of vertices
    private int V;
    // 2. Preorder number counter
    private int preCount;
    private int[] preorder;
    // 3. To check if v is visited
    private boolean[] visited;
    // 4. To check strong component containing v
    private boolean[] chk;
    // 5. To store given graph
    private List<Integer>[] graph;
    // 6. To store all Integer elements
    private List<List<Integer> > sccComp;
    private Stack<Integer> stack1;
    private Stack<Integer> stack2;
    // Method 1
    // To get all strongly connected components
    public List<List<Integer> >
        getSCComponents(List<Integer>[] graph)
        V = graph.length;
        this.graph = graph;
        preorder = new int[V];
        chk = new boolean[V];
        visited = new boolean[V];
        stack1 = new Stack<Integer>();
        stack2 = new Stack<Integer>();
        sccComp = new ArrayList<>();
        for (int v = 0; v < V; v++)
            if (!visited[v])
        return sccComp;
    // Method 2
    // Depth first search algorithm
    public void dfs(int v)
        preorder[v] = preCount++;
        visited[v] = true;
        for (int w : graph[v]) {
            if (!visited[w])
            else if (!chk[w])
                while (preorder[stack2.peek()]
                       > preorder[w])
        if (stack2.peek() == v) {
            List<Integer> component
                = new ArrayList<Integer>();
            int w;
            do {
                w = stack1.pop();
                chk[w] = true;
            } while (w != v);
    // Method 3
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
        // Declaring and initializing variable to
        // number of vertices
        int V = 8;
        // Creating a graph
        List<Integer>[] g = new List[V];
        for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
            g[i] = new ArrayList<Integer>();
        // Accepting all edges
        int E = 14;
        // Custom integers inputs for all edges
        int[] x = new int[] { 0, 1, 2, 3, 3, 7, 2,
                              7, 5, 6, 1, 4, 4, 1 };
        int[] y = new int[] { 1, 2, 3, 2, 7, 3, 6,
                              6, 6, 5, 5, 5, 0, 4 };
        for (int i = 0; i < E; i++) {
            int x1 = x[i];
            int y1 = y[i];
        // Creating an object of main class i the main()
        // method
        GFG gab = new GFG();
        // Display message only
            "\nStrongly Connected Components for given edges : ");
        // now, printing all the strongly connected
        // components
        List<List<Integer> > scComponents
            = gab.getSCComponents(g);


Strongly Connected Components for give edges : 
[[5, 6], [7, 3, 2], [4, 1, 0]]


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