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Greek Alphabet: Symbols, Letters, Names, and Examples

Last Updated : 15 Feb, 2024
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Greek alphabet has 24 letters, including seven vowels and 15 single and two double consonants. The letters are written from left to right. The Greek alphabet was developed in Greece around 1000 BCE. Greek Alphabet has 24 letters, representing both a consonant and a vowel sound. The letters of the Greek alphabet are alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, iota, kappa, lambda, mu, nu, xi, omicron, pi, rho, sigma, tau, upsilon, phi, chi, psi, and omega.

This article discusses the list of letters in the Greek alphabet with names charts, and, examples. It also explores the usage of the Greek Alphabet in mathematics and scientific notation, the uppercase and lowercase symbols, and the historical significance of this ancient writing. Letters in the Greek Alphabet

What are Greek Alphabet?

Greek alphabet is a writing system that was developed in Greece about 1000 BCE. The Greek alphabet has 24 letters. Each letter represents both a consonant and a vowel sound.

  • There are two types of Greek notations with uppercase and lowercase forms. The modern 24-letter Greek alphabets were created in 403 BC by Euclid.
  • Greek alphabet letters are mostly used as math and science symbols.

History of Greek Alphabets

Greek alphabet is considered the ancestor of most modern European alphabets. It is the earliest known alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels and consonants. The Latin alphabet used in English is derived from the Greek alphabet through Etruscan and with later alterations. The Greek alphabet was developed in Greece around 1000 BCE. It was derived from the North Semitic alphabet via that of the Phoenicians. The Greek alphabet was unified in 403 B.C. in Athens.

List of Greek Alphabet Names In Order

Letters in Greek Alphabet are given in the following table:

Ordered List of Greek Alphabet Names

Order of Greek Alphabet Greek Alphabet Letters Names

Greek Letters Pronunciation

1 Alpha (Α α)

alpha, άλφα

2 Beta (Β β)

beta, βήτα

3 Gamma (Γ γ)

gamma, γάμμα

4 Delta (Δ δ)

delta, δέλτα

5 Epsilon (Ε ε)

epsilon, έψιλον

6 Zeta (Ζ ζ)

zeta, ζήτα

7 Eta (Η η)

eta, ήτα

8 Theta (Θ θ)

theta, θήτα

9 Iota (Ι ι)

iota, ιώτα

10 Kappa (Κ κ)

kappa, κάππα

11 Lambda (Λ λ)

la(m)bda, λά(μ)βδα

12 Mu (Μ μ)

mu, μυ

13 Nu (Ν ν)

nu, νυ

14 Xi (Ξ ξ)

xi, ξι

15 Omicron (Ο ο)

omicron, όμικρον

16 Pi (Π π)

pi, πι

17 Rho (Ρ ρ)

rho, ρώ

18 Sigma (Σ σ/ς)

sigma, σίγμα

19 Tau (Τ τ)

tau, ταυ

20 Upsilon (Υ υ)

upsilon, ύψιλον

21 Phi (Φ φ)

phi, φι

22 Chi (Χ χ)

chi, χι

23 Psi (Ψ ψ)

psi, ψι

24 Omega (Ω ω)

omega, ωμέγα

Greek Alphabet Symbols: Uppercase and Lowercase

There are two forms of symbols in the Greek Alphabet. They are :

  • Uppercase Greek Alphabets
  • Lowercase Greek Alphabets

Uppercase and lowercase forms of the total 24 Greek Alphabet are:

Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, Ω ω.

Greek Alphabet Uppercase Symbols

All uppercase Greek alphabet letters are:

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Greek Alphabet Lowercase Symbols

All lowercase Greek alphabet letters are:

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ/ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Note: Greek letter Sigma (Σ σ/ς) also has two forms, lowercase sigma (σ) and lowercase final sigma (ς). Final sigma (ς) is used only at the end of words.

Greek Letters: Uppercase and Lowercase

The Lowercase and the Uppercase notations of the Greek Alphabet are listed in the table below:

Greek Symbols: Uppercase and Lowercase

Greek Letter Lower Case Upper Case
Alpha Α α
Beta B β
Gamma Γ γ
Delta Δ δ
Epsilon E ε
Zeta Z ζ
Eta H η
Theta Θ θ
Iota I ι
Kappa K κ
Lambda Λ λ
Mu M μ
Nu N ν
Xi Ξ ξ
Omicron O ο
Pi Π π
Rho P ρ
Sigma Σ σ/ς
Tau T τ
Upsilon Y υ
Phi Ψ φ
Chi X χ
Psi Φ ψ
Omega Ω ω

Greek Alphabet from A to Z in English

Greek alphabets in order from a to z and their English equivalents are :

Greek Alphabets and their English equivalents

Greek Letter English Equivalent
Alpha (Α α) a
Beta (Β β) b
Gamma (Γ γ) g
Delta (Δ δ) d
Epsilon (Ε ε) e
Zeta (Ζ ζ) z
Eta (Η η) h
Theta (Θ θ) th
Iota (Ι ι) i
Kappa (Κ κ) k
Lambda (Λ λ) l
Mu (Μ μ) m
Nu (Ν ν) n
Xi (Ξ ξ) x
Omicron (Ο ο) o
Pi (Π π) p
Rho (Ρ ρ) r
Sigma (Σ σ/ς) s
Tau (Τ τ) t
Upsilon (Υ υ) u
Phi (Φ φ) phi
Chi (Χ χ) khi/chi
Psi (Ψ ψ) psi
Omega (Ω ω) o

Greek Alphabets Chart

The following chart offers a quick reference to the entire Greek alphabet, from Alpha (Α) to Omega (Ω), along with their English equivalents.

Greek Alphabet ChartGreek Alphabets-Properties

The various properties of the Greek Alphabets are:

  • The Greek alphabet includes 24 letters: 7 vowels and 15 single and 2 double consonants.
  • These Greek letters can be grouped into 3 categories: single and two-letter vowels /Single, double and two-letter consonants /Combinations.
  • Greek letters can be written from left to right.
  • The Greek letter sigma has three different forms (Σ, σ, ς). The use of each form depends on its position in a word.
  • Diacritical marks such as the accent mark (‘) are used to help the reader with Greek pronunciation.

Greek Alphabets-Usage

Various Applications of the letters in the Greek Alphabet are:

  • Greek Alphabets are not only used in Greek language but also used in many other languages.
  • Greek Alphabets are used in representing Mathematical Notations.
  • In Greek Alphabet, each letter may have an numeric value.
  • Greek Alphabets are widely used in Scientific contexts.
  • Greek Alphabets are also used in mathematical contexts as representation of symbols.
  • Greek Alphabets are widely used in engineering.

Related Articles on Greek Alphabet:

Summary on Ancient Greek Alphabet

Greek letters are mostly used to represent the functions in mathematics and science. In this article, you learnt about the list of letters in the Greek alphabet with name, chart, examples and the uppercase and lowercase symbols. It is important to learn the usage of Greek Alphabet in mathematics and scientific notation, and the historical significance of this ancient writing.

Practice Problems on Greek Letters

Answer the following MCQs (Here only one answer is correct)

1. What is the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet?

  1. Gamma
  2. Sigma
  3. Phi
  4. Pi

2. Which Greek letter is commonly used to represent the mathematical constant π?

  1. Delta
  2. Rho
  3. Omega
  4. Pi

3. What is the pronunciation of the Greek letter “Ξ” (xi)?

  1. Ksi
  2. Zeta
  3. Epsilon
  4. Chi

4. In the Greek alphabet, which letter is equivalent to the English letter “M”?

  1. Mu
  2. Lambda
  3. Nu
  4. Kappa

5. Which Greek letter is often associated with the symbol for “sum” in mathematics?

  1. Sigma
  2. Tau
  3. Theta
  4. Omicron

6. What is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet?

  1. Psi
  2. Delta
  3. Beta
  4. Gamma

7. Greek letter “Φ” (phi) is commonly used to represent which mathematical constant?

  1. Euler’s number (e)
  2. Golden ratio (φ)
  3. Imaginary unit (i)
  4. Square root of 2 (√2)

8. What is the Greek letter equivalent to the English letter “R”?

  1. Rho
  2. Alpha
  3. Epsilon
  4. Iota

9. In the Greek alphabet, which letter is represented by an upward-pointing triangle?

  1. Delta
  2. Omega
  3. Gamma
  4. Theta

10. The letter “Λ” (lambda) is often used as a symbol in various fields. What does it represent in physics?

  1. Wavelength
  2. Velocity
  3. Acceleration
  4. Force

Letters in Greek Alphabet-FAQs

What are the 24 Greek Letters in Order?

The 24 letters in the Greek alphabet are:

Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, Ω ω.

What are the first 10 letters in the Greek Alphabet?

The first 10 letters of the Greek alphabet are: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, iota, kappa.

What is V in the Greek Alphabet ?

The Greeks used either the ou diphthong, or the consonant b, to represent the (Latin) “v” sound, which is like our “w” as others have said above.

Are there 24 or 27 Greek Letters in total?

The Greek Alphabet – Learn its 24 letters

The Greek alphabet includes 24 letters: 7 vowels and 15 single and 2 double consonants. The Greek letters can be grouped into 3 categories: single and two-letter vowels /Single, double and two-letter consonants /Combinations. It is written from left to right. The letter sigma has three different forms (Σ, σ, ς).

What is this Symbol Ψ in Greek?

Psi (uppercase/lowercase Ψ ψ) is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet. It is used to represent the “ps” sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 700. Letters that came from it include Cyrillic Ѱ.

Is ∂ a Greek Letter?

The partial derivative symbol is NOT a Greek letter. It is a calligraphic form of the Latin letter d, just as the integral sign was originally a variant form of the letter s. The Greek letter corresponding to d is delta: Δ as a capital and δ in lowercase.

What was the First Greek Letter?

Alpha was the first Greek letter. It is based on the Hebrew word aleph, which comes from the word eleph, meaning “ox.”

Who invented the Greek Alphabet?

At some point of time between 800-700 BCE, the alphabet was introduced to the Greeks by the Phoenicians.

Is Pi a Greek Letter?

Yes, Pi uppercase (Π), lowercase (π), is the sixteenth letter of the Greek Alphabet.

What is the Letter I in Greek?

The letter I in the Greek Alphabet is the letter ‘iota’.

What is Alpha Symbol in Greek Alphabet?

The Alpha symbol in Greek Alphabets is represented as, Α (α).

What is the Greek symbol for life?

The Greek symbol for life is the “Ankh,” which is an ancient Egyptian symbol that has been adopted and associated with life in various cultures, including Greek.

Is it difficult to learn Greek?

The difficulty of learning Greek depends on various factors, including your previous language learning experience, linguistic aptitude, and the resources available to you. Some find Greek challenging due to its different alphabet and grammatical structure, but others may find it manageable with dedication and practice.

How can I learn Greek letters?

To learn Greek letters, you can use various resources such as online tutorials, language learning apps, and textbooks specifically designed for beginners in Greek. Practice writing the letters regularly to reinforce your memory.

How to read the Greek language?

Reading the Greek language involves familiarizing yourself with the Greek alphabet, understanding pronunciation rules, and practicing reading texts. Start with basic words and gradually progress to more complex sentences. Immersing yourself in Greek content, such as books, articles, or videos, can also help improve your reading skills.

What are Greek vowels called?

Greek vowels are called “vowels” in English, but in the context of the Greek language, they are specifically referred to as “phōníes” (φωνήες), which means “sounds” or “voices.” The Greek alphabet has seven vowels: Α (alpha), Ε (epsilon), Η (eta), Ι (iota), Ο (omicron), Υ (upsilon), and Ω (omega).



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