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GATE | GATE-CS-2015 (Set 2) | Question 56

  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 28 Jun, 2021

Consider a simple checkpointing protocol and the following set of operations in the log.

(start, T4); (write, T4, y, 2, 3); (start, T1); (commit, T4); (write, T1, z, 5, 7);
(checkpoint);
(start, T2); (write, T2, x, 1, 9); (commit, T2); (start, T3); (write, T3, z, 7, 2); 

If a crash happens now and the system tries to recover using both undo and redo operations, what are the contents of the undo list and the redo list

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(A) Undo: T3, T1; Redo: T2
(B) Undo: T3, T1; Redo: T2, T4
(C) Undo: none; Redo: T2, T4, T3; T1
(D) Undo: T3, T1, T4; Redo: T2


Answer: (A)

Explanation: Since T1 and T3 are not committed yet, they must be undone. The transaction T2 must be redone because it is after the latest checkpoint.

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