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Function Overloading in JavaScript

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  • Last Updated : 01 Sep, 2021

Unlike the other programming languages, JavaScript Does not support Function Overloading
Here is a small code which shows that JavaScript does not support Function Overloading. 


function foo(arg1) {
/* The above function will be
   overwritten by the function
   below, and the below function
   will be executed for any number
   and any type of arguments */
function foo(arg1, arg2) {
    console.log(arg1, arg2);
// Driver code


Geeks undefined 

The reason for the “undefined” in the output is: In JavaScript if two functions are defined with same name then the last defined function will overwrite the former function. 
So in this case the foo(arg1) was overwritten by foo(arg1,arg2), but we only passed one 
Argument (“Geeks”) to the function. It means that the second argument is undefined, So when we tried to print the second argument, it is printed as “undefined”.

We have seen that function Overloading is not support in JavaScript, but we can implement the function Overloading on our own, which is pretty much complex when it comes to more number and more type of arguments. The following code will help you to understand how to implement function Overloading in JavaScript. 


// Creating a class  "foo"
class foo {
    // Creating an overloadable method/function.
    overloadableFunction() {
        // Define three overloaded functions
        var function1 = function (arg1) {
            console.log("Function1 called with"
                    + " arguments : " + arg1);
            return arg1;
        var function2 = function (arg1, arg2) {
            console.log("Function2 called with"
                    + " arguments : " + arg1
                    + " and " + arg2);
            return arg1 + arg2;
        var function3 = function (arg1) {
            var concatenated__arguments = " ", temp = " "
            // Concatenating all the arguments
            // and storing them into a string
            for (var i = 0; i < arg1.length; i++) {
                concatenated__arguments =
                    concatenated__arguments + arg1[i]
            /* Just ignore this loop and temp variable,
               we are using this loop to concatenate
               arguments with a space between them */
            for (var i = 0; i < arg1.length; i++) {
                temp = temp + " " + arg1[i]
            console.log("Function3 called with this"
                + " array as an argument : [" + temp + "]");
            console.log("Output of log is : ")
            // Returns concatenated argument string
            return concatenated__arguments;
        /* Here with the help of the length of the
           arguments and the type of the argument
           passed ( in this case an Array ) we
           determine which function to be executed */
        if (arguments.length === 1
                && Array.isArray(arguments[0])) {
            return function3(arguments[0]);
        } else if (arguments.length === 2) {
            return function2(arguments[0], arguments[1]);
        } else if (arguments.length === 1
                && !Array.isArray(arguments[0])) {
            return function1(arguments[0]);
// Driver Code
// Instantiate an object of the "foo" class
var object = new foo();
// Call the overloaded functions using the
// function overloadableFunction(...)
// We are passing 1 argument so executes function1
// We are passing two arguments so executes function2
console.log(object.overloadableFunction("Geeks", "for"));
// We are passing an array so executes function3
                ["Geeks", "for", "Geeks"])); 


Function1 called with arguments : Geeks

Function2 called with arguments : Geeks and for

Function3 called with this array as an argument : [ Geeks for Geeks]

Output of log is :

In the above program, when different number of arguments are passed to the same function, then based on the number and type of arguments, the arguments will be passed to the respective function. 
In this case, we have used three different functions (function1, function2, function3) for function Overloading. 

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