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deque::at() and deque::swap() in C++ STL

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 30 Jun, 2022
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Deque or Double ended queues are sequence containers with the feature of expansion and contraction on both the ends. They are similar to vectors, but are more efficient in case of insertion and deletion of elements at the end, and also the beginning. Unlike vectors, contiguous storage allocation may not be guaranteed.

deque::at()

at() function is used reference the element present at the position given as the parameter to the function. Syntax :

dequename.at(position)
Parameters :
Position of the element to be fetched.
Returns :
Direct reference to the element at the given position.

Examples:

Input  :  mydeque = 1, 2, 3
          mydeque.at(2);
Output :  3

Input  :  mydeque = 3, 4, 1, 7, 3
          mydeque.at(3);
Output :  7

Errors and Exceptions 1. If the position is not present in the deque, it throws out_of_range. 2. It has a strong no exception throw guarantee otherwise. 

CPP




// CPP program to illustrate
// Implementation of at() function
#include <deque>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
    deque<int> mydeque;
    mydeque.push_back(3);
    mydeque.push_back(4);
    mydeque.push_back(1);
    mydeque.push_back(7);
    mydeque.push_back(3);
    cout << mydeque.at(3);
    return 0;
}

Output:

7

Application Given a deque of integers, print all the integers present at even positions.

Input  :1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Output :1 3 5 7 9
Explanation - 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 are at position 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 which are even

Algorithm 1. Run a loop till the size of the array. 2. Check if the position is divisible by 2, if yes, print the element at that position. 

CPP




// CPP program to illustrate
// Application of at() function
#include <deque>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
    deque<int> mydeque;
    mydeque.push_back(1);
    mydeque.push_back(2);
    mydeque.push_back(3);
    mydeque.push_back(4);
    mydeque.push_back(5);
    mydeque.push_back(6);
    mydeque.push_back(7);
    mydeque.push_back(8);
    mydeque.push_back(9);
    // Deque becomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
 
    for (int i = 0; i < mydeque.size(); ++i) {
        if (i % 2 == 0) {
            cout << mydeque.at(i);
            cout << " ";
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

Output:

1 3 5 7 9
deque::swap()

This function is used to swap the contents of one deque with another deque of same type and size. Syntax :

dequename1.swap(dequename2)
Parameters :
The name of the deque with which
the contents have to be swapped.
Result :
All the elements of the 2 deque are swapped.

Examples:

Input  : mydeque1 = {1, 2, 3, 4}
         mydeque2 = {3, 5, 7, 9}
         mydeque1.swap(mydeque2);
Output : mydeque1 = {3, 5, 7, 9}
         mydeque2 = {1, 2, 3, 4}

Input  : mydeque1 = {1, 3, 5, 7}
         mydeque2 = {2, 4, 6, 8}
         mydeque1.swap(mydeque2);
Output : mydeque1 = {2, 4, 6, 8}
         mydeque2 = {1, 3, 5, 7}

Errors and Exceptions 1. It throws an error if the deque are not of the same type. 2. It throws error if the deque are not of the same size. 2. It has a basic no exception throw guarantee otherwise. 

CPP




// CPP program to illustrate
// Implementation of swap() function
#include <deque>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
    // deque container declaration
    deque<int> mydeque1{ 1, 2, 3, 4 };
    deque<int> mydeque2{ 3, 5, 7, 9 };
 
    // using swap() function to swap elements of deques
    mydeque1.swap(mydeque2);
 
    // printing the first deque
    cout << "mydeque1 = ";
    for (auto it = mydeque1.begin(); it < mydeque1.end(); ++it)
        cout << *it << " ";
 
    // printing the second deque
    cout << endl
         << "mydeque2 = ";
    for (auto it = mydeque2.begin(); it < mydeque2.end(); ++it)
        cout << *it << " ";
    return 0;
}

Output:

mydeque1 = 3 5 7 9 
mydeque2 = 1 2 3 4 

Let us see the differences in a tabular form -:

 deque::at() deque::swap() 
1.It is used to return a reference to the element at position n in the deque container object.It is used to exchange the content of the container by the content of another container which is containing elements of the same type.
2.

Its syntax is -:

reference at (size_type n);

Its syntax is -:

swap (deque& x);

3.It only take one parameter that is the position of an element in the container.It only take one parameter that is the queue with which we want to exchange the elements.
4.Its complexity is constant.It does not have any return value.
5.Its iterator validity does not changes.Its complexity is constant.

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