A Database Administrator (DBA) is an individual or person responsible for controlling, maintaining, coordinating, and operating a database management system. Managing, securing, and taking care of the database systems is a prime responsibility. They are responsible and in charge of authorizing access to the database, coordinating, capacity, planning, installation, and monitoring uses, and acquiring and gathering software and hardware resources as and when needed. Their role also varies from configuration, database design, migration, security, troubleshooting, backup, and data recovery. Database administration is a major and key function in any firm or organization that is relying on one or more databases. They are overall commanders of the Database system.
Types of Database Administrator (DBA) :
- Administrative DBA –
Their job is to maintain the server and keep it functional. They are concerned with data backups, security, troubleshooting, replication, migration, etc.
- Data Warehouse DBA –
Assigned earlier roles, but held accountable for merging data from various sources into the data warehouse. They also design the warehouse, with cleaning and scrubs data prior to loading.
- Cloud DBA –
Nowadays companies are preferring to save their workpiece on cloud storage. As it reduces the chance of data loss and provides an extra layer of data security and integrity.
- Development DBA –
They build and develop queries, stores procedure, etc. that meets firm or organization needs. They are par at programming.
- Application DBA –
They particularly manage all requirements of application components that interact with the database and accomplish activities such as application installation and coordination, application upgrades, database cloning, data load process management, etc.
- Architect –
They are held responsible for designing schemas like building tables. They work to build a structure that meets organizational needs. The design is further used by developers and development DBAs to design and implement real applications.
- OLAP DBA –
They design and build multi-dimensional cubes for determination support or OLAP systems.
- Data Modeler –
In general, a data modeler is in charge of a portion of a data architect’s duties. A data modeler is typically not regarded as a DBA, but this is not a hard and fast rule.
- Task-Oriented DBA –
To concentrate on a specific DBA task, large businesses may hire highly specialised DBAs. They are quite uncommon outside of big corporations. Recovery and backup DBA, whose responsibility it is to guarantee that the databases of businesses can be recovered, is an example of a task-oriented DBA. However, this specialism is not present in the majority of firms. These task-oriented DBAs will make sure that highly qualified professionals are working on crucial DBA tasks when it is possible.
- Database Analyst –
This position doesn’t actually have a set definition. Junior DBAs may occasionally be referred to as database analysts. A database analyst occasionally performs functions that are comparable to those of a database architect. The term “Data Administrator” is also used to describe database analysts and data analysts. Additionally, some businesses occasionally refer to database administrators as data analysts.
Importance of Database Administrator (DBA) :
- Database Administrator manages and controls three levels of database internal level, conceptual level, and external level of Database management system architecture and in discussion with the comprehensive user community, gives a definition of the world view of the database. It then provides an external view of different users and applications.
- Database Administrator ensures held responsible to maintain integrity and security of database restricting from unauthorized users. It grants permission to users of the database and contains a profile of each and every user in the database.
- Database Administrators are also held accountable that the database is protected and secured and that any chance of data loss keeps at a minimum.
- Database Administrator is solely responsible for reducing the risk of data loss as it backup the data at regular intervals.
Role and Duties of Database Administrator (DBA) :
- Decides hardware –
They decide on economical hardware, based on cost, performance, and efficiency of hardware, and best suits the organization. It is hardware that is an interface between end users and the database.
- Manages data integrity and security –
Data integrity needs to be checked and managed accurately as it protects and restricts data from unauthorized use. DBA eyes on relationships within data to maintain data integrity.
- Database Accessibility –
Database Administrator is solely responsible for giving permission to access data available in the database. It also makes sure who has the right to change the content.
- Database design –
DBA is held responsible and accountable for logical, physical design, external model design, and integrity and security control.
- Database implementation –
DBA implements DBMS and checks database loading at the time of its implementation.
- Query processing performance –
DBA enhances query processing by improving speed, performance, and accuracy.
- Tuning Database Performance –
If the user is not able to get data speedily and accurately then it may lose organization’s business. So by tuning SQL commands DBA can enhance the performance of the database.
Various responsibilities of Database Administrator (DBA) :
- Responsible for designing overall database schema (tables & fields).
- To select and install database software and hardware.
- Responsible for deciding on access methods and data storage.
- DBA selects appropriate DBMS software like oracle, SQL server or MySQL.
- Used in designing recovery procedures.
- DBA decides the user access level and security checks for accessing, modifying or manipulating data.
- DBA is responsible for specifying various techniques for monitoring the database performance.
- DBA is responsible for operation managements.
- The operation management deals with the data problems which arises on day to day basis, and the responsibilities include are:
- Investigating if any error is been found in the data.
- Supervising of restart and recovery procedures in case of any event failure.
- Supervising reorganization of the databases.
- Controlling and handling all periodic dumps of data.
Skills Required for DBA:
1. The various programming and soft skills are required to DBA are as follows,
- Good communication skills
- Excellent knowledge of databases architecture and design and RDBMS.
- Knowledge of Structured Query Language (SQL).
2. In addition, this aspect of database administration includes maintenance of data security, which involves maintaining security authorization tables, conducting periodic security audits, investigating all known security breaches.
3. To carry out all these functions, it is crucial that the DBA has all the accurate information about the company’s data readily on hand. For this purpose he maintains a data dictionary.
4. The data dictionary contains definitions of all data items and structures, the various schemes, the relevant authorization and validation checks and the different mapping definitions.
5. It should also have information about the source and destination of a data item and the flow of a data item as it is used by a system. This type of information is a great help to the DBA in maintaining centralized control of data.
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