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Sample Practice Problems on Complexity Analysis of Algorithms

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 21 Sep, 2022
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Prerequisite: Asymptotic Analysis, Worst, Average and Best Cases, Asymptotic Notations, Analysis of loops.

Problem 1: Find the complexity of the below recurrence:  

              { 3T(n-1), if  n>0,
T(n) =   { 1, otherwise

Solution:  

Let us solve using substitution.

T(n) = 3T(n-1)
       = 3(3T(n-2)) 
       = 32T(n-2)
       = 33T(n-3)
       … 
       …
       = 3nT(n-n)
       = 3nT(0) 
       = 3n

This clearly shows that the complexity of this function is O(3n).

Problem 2: Find the complexity of the recurrence:  

             { 2T(n-1) – 1, if n>0,
T(n) =   { 1, otherwise

Solution: 

Let us try solving this function with substitution.

T(n) = 2T(n-1) – 1
       = 2(2T(n-2)-1)-1 
       = 22(T(n-2)) – 2 – 1
       = 22(2T(n-3)-1) – 2 – 1 
       = 23T(n-3) – 22 – 21 – 20
          …..
       …..
       = 2nT(n-n) – 2n-1 – 2n-2 – 2n-3
          ….. 22 – 21 – 20

       = 2n – 2n-1 – 2n-2 – 2n-3
          ….. 22 – 21 – 20
          = 2n – (2n-1) 

[Note: 2n-1 + 2n-2 + …… +  20 = 2n – 1]

T(n) = 1

Time Complexity is O(1). Note that while the recurrence relation looks exponential
he solution to the recurrence relation here gives a different result.

Problem 3: Find the complexity of the below program: 

CPP




function(int n)
{
    if (n==1)
       return;
    for (int i=1; i<=n; i++)
    {
        for (int j=1; j<=n; j++)
        {
            printf("*");
            break;
        }
    }
}

Solution: Consider the comments in the following function. 

CPP




function(int n)
{
    if (n==1)
       return;
    for (int i=1; i<=n; i++)
    {
        // Inner loop executes only one
        // time due to break statement.
        for (int j=1; j<=n; j++)
        {
            printf("*");
            break;
        }
    }
}

Time Complexity: O(n), Even though the inner loop is bounded by n, but due to the break statement, it is executing only once.

Problem 4: Find the complexity of the below program: 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i=n/2; i<=n; i++)
        for (int j=1; j<=n; j = 2 * j)
            for (int k=1; k<=n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}

Java




static void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i = n / 2; i <= n; i++)
        for (int j = 1; j <= n; j = 2 * j)
            for (int k = 1; k <= n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}
 
// This code is contributed by rutvik_56.

C#




static void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i = n / 2; i <= n; i++)
        for (int j = 1; j <= n; j = 2 * j)
            for (int k = 1; k <= n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}
 
// This code is contributed by pratham76.

Javascript




<script>
function function1(n)
{
    var count = 0;
    for (i = n / 2; i <= n; i++)
        for (j = 1; j <= n; j = 2 * j)
            for (k = 1; k <= n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}
 
// This code is contributed by umadevi9616
</script>

Solution: Consider the comments in the following function. 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i=n/2; i<=n; i++)
 
        // Executes O(Log n) times
        for (int j=1; j<=n; j = 2 * j)
 
            // Executes O(Log n) times
            for (int k=1; k<=n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}

Time Complexity: O(n log2n).

Problem 5: Find the complexity of the below program: 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i=n/2; i<=n; i++)
        for (int j=1; j+n/2<=n; j = j++)
            for (int k=1; k<=n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}

Java




static void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i=n/2; i<=n; i++)
        for (int j=1; j+n/2<=n; j = j++)
            for (int k=1; k<=n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}
 
// This code is contributed by Pushpesh Raj.

Solution: Consider the comments in the following function. 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
 
    // outer loop executes n/2 times
    for (int i=n/2; i<=n; i++)
 
        // middle loop executes  n/2 times
        for (int j=1; j+n/2<=n; j = j++)
 
            // inner loop executes logn times
            for (int k=1; k<=n; k = k * 2)
                count++;
}

Time Complexity: O(n2logn).

Problem 6: Find the complexity of the below program: 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int i = 1, s =1;
    while (s <= n)
    {
        i++;
        s += i;
        printf("*");
    }
}

Solution: We can define the terms ‘s’ according to relation si = si-1 + i. The value of ‘i’ increases by one for each iteration. The value contained in ‘s’ at the ith iteration is the sum of the first ‘i’ positive integers. If k is total number of iterations taken by the program, then while loop terminates if: 1 + 2 + 3 ….+ k = [k(k+1)/2] > n So k = O(√n).
Time Complexity: O(√n).

Problem 7: Find a tight upper bound on the complexity of the below program: 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
    for (int i=0; i<n; i++)
        for (int j=i; j< i*i; j++)
            if (j%i == 0)
            {
                for (int k=0; k<j; k++)
                    printf("*");
            }
}

Solution: Consider the comments in the following function. 
 

CPP




void function(int n)
{
    int count = 0;
 
    // executes n times
    for (int i=0; i<n; i++)
 
        // executes O(n*n) times.
        for (int j=i; j< i*i; j++)
            if (j%i == 0)
            {
                // executes j times = O(n*n) times
                for (int k=0; k<j; k++)
                    printf("*");
            }
}

Time Complexity: O(n5)

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