Physical and Logical Data Independence

1. Physical Data Independence :
Physical Data Independence is defined as the ability to make changes in the structure of the lowest level of the Database Management System (DBMS) without affecting the higher-level schemas. Hence, modification in the Physical level should not result in any changes in the Logical or View levels.

Note –
There are 3 levels in the schema architecture of DBMS: physical level, logical level and view level (arranged from the lowest to highest level).

2. Logical Data Independence :
Logical Data Independence is defined as the ability to make changes in the structure of the middle level of the Database Management System (DBMS) without affecting the highest-level schema or application programs. Hence, modification in the logical level should not result in any changes in the view levels or application programs.

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