Certainly! Here's an explanation for the ranking of coupling between modules from strongest (least desirable) to weakest (most desirable) as given in option (A) - I-II-III-IV-V:
I. Content coupling: This form of coupling represents the strongest and least desirable type. It occurs when one module directly accesses or modifies the internal content (e.g., data or implementation details) of another module. Content coupling creates tight dependencies, making the modules highly interdependent, which can lead to maintenance issues and difficulties in making changes.
II. Common coupling: Common coupling occurs when multiple modules share a global data or resource. This form of coupling implies that several modules rely on the same data or resource, leading to a degree of dependency. While not as strong as content coupling, it can still result in tight coupling between modules.
III. Control coupling: Control coupling represents a weaker form of coupling. It arises when one module passes control information (e.g., function calls or parameters) to another module. While there is still a dependency between the modules, it is looser than content or common coupling since the interaction is primarily through control flow.
IV. Stamp coupling: Stamp coupling occurs when modules share a common data structure (e.g., a record or object), but only use a subset of the shared data. This type of coupling indicates a weaker level of dependency compared to content, common, or control coupling since modules are only interested in specific parts of the shared data.
V. Data coupling: Data coupling represents the weakest and most desirable form of coupling. In data coupling, modules communicate by passing data through parameters or data structures. Modules are independent in terms of their internal implementation, and their interaction is limited to data exchange. This loose coupling allows for more flexibility and easier maintenance.
Therefore, the ranking of coupling from strongest (least desirable) to weakest (most desirable) as given in option (A) is I-II-III-IV-V, with content coupling being the strongest and data coupling being the weakest form of coupling.
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