# Find closest smaller value for every element in array

Given an array of integers, find the closest smaller element for every element. If there is no smaller element then print -1

Examples:

Input : arr[] = {10, 5, 11, 6, 20, 12}
Output : 6, -1, 10, 5, 12, 11

Input : arr[] = {10, 5, 11, 10, 20, 12}
Output : 5 -1 10 5 12 11

## Recommended: Please try your approach on {IDE} first, before moving on to the solution.

A simple solution is to run two nested loops. We pick an outer element one by one. For every picked element, we traverse remaining array and find closest smaller element. Time complexity of this solution is O(n*n)

A better solution is to use sorting. We sort all elements, then for every element, traverse toward left until we find a smaller element (Note that there can be multiple occurrences of an element).

An efficient solution is to use Self Balancing BST (Implemented as set in C++ and TreeSet in Java). In a Self Balancing BST, we can do both insert and closest smaller operations in O(Log n) time.

 // C++ program to find closest smaller value for // every array element #include using namespace std;    void closestSmaller(int arr[], int n) {     // Insert all array elements into a TreeSet     set ts;     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)         ts.insert(arr[i]);        // Find largest smaller element for every     // array element     for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)     {         auto smaller = ts.lower_bound(arr[i]);         if (smaller == ts.begin())             cout << -1 << " ";         else             cout << *(--smaller) << " ";     } }    // Driver Code int main() {     int arr[] = {10, 5, 11, 6, 20, 12};     int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);        closestSmaller(arr, n);        return 0; }    // This code is contributed by // sanjeev2552

 // Java program to find closest smaller value for // every array element import java.util.*;    class TreeSetDemo {     public static void closestSmaller(int[] arr)     {         // Insert all array elements into a TreeSet         TreeSet ts = new TreeSet();         for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++)             ts.add(arr[i]);            // Find largest smaller element for every         // array element         for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {             Integer smaller = ts.lower(arr[i]);             if (smaller == null)                 System.out.print(-1 + " ");             else                 System.out.print(smaller + " ");         }     }        public static void main(String[] args)     {         int[] arr = { 10, 5, 11, 6, 20, 12 };         closestSmaller(arr);     } }

Output:
6 -1 10 5 12 11

Time Complexity : O(n Log n)

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Improved By : sanjeev2552

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